English Definitions


Brand: Product’s identity and the feelings and values customer associate with.

Marketing: Process of creating/developing/promoting/selling goods and services to customers by managing their interest and need for the product.

Focus Group: A group of people are asked by a company to talk about their likes/dislikes concerning a product in marketing.

Brand Loyalty: Consumer’s commitment and their habit of buying it regularly.

Bandwagon effect: When something becomes popular quickly as people follow the example set by the others.

TOK: Paradigms


Paradigms are the way you see things, and your perspectives. We all have different views and thoughts about things, and therefore we all have different paradigms. For example, the feature of the following photo can be interpreted as the Amazon Jungle because the text writes, Indigenous ‘Amazonians’. As it can be seen, there are two speech bubbles coming out of two people of different ethnical backgrounds, with one being the people of the Indigenous Amazonian tribe, and the other being the Brazilian Minister of Agriculture. I personally think that the following sentences would fit these speech bubbles.

Indigenous Amazonians: This seems to be an isolated area and there is no presence of other tribes. We may choose to reside here since it seems to have fertile soil to grow abundant vegetation. There are also many trees in the area which we can use as a resource to help build a new residential.

Minister of Agriculture: This land must have rich soil. We should cut down these trees, make it into paper, and then we shall cultivate the land so we can use this space to grow and harvest crops.

As I have not done any focused studies or a research on this particular Amazonian tribes, I have very limited background knowledge on them however, my common sense suggests that their paradigm will be focused on ‘living’. Because for example, we live in a developed world where all systems are organized. When we need some food and daily product supplies, we may just go to the nearby supermarket. When we need ‘water’ for cooking, or for taking a shower, we may just shift the tap and get water flowing out of it at an instant. We have very easy access to our daily essentials, and therefore we have more time that we can spend on other things such as, education, etc. However, for those Indigenous people who are in isolation from other groups and live independently, the number of people in the tribe is very few and they do not have a decided position/land of their residency so they do not have organized systems for living. Therefore, in order for them to obtain their food and water resource, they have to hunt for food, grow their plantation, and walk distances to obtain water from the river, which leaves them with less time for education etc. So their life is mainly focused on their ‘living’, compared to us who focus on ‘jobs’ or work. Due to such thinking that people from a tribe are likely to consider more about their standards of ‘living’ such as food, water, and shelter, I thought that the Indigenous Amazonians will take residency and resource into consideration when they are shown this forest. As on the contrast, the Brazilian Minister of Agriculture is more likely to think about using this space as much as possible to grow crops to sell to the market. As you may know, the roll of a minister of agriculture is to support a country’s agriculture in terms of its economy, and supply of crops to meet the population’s needs. Therefore, he is more likely to think about the production of crops and vegetation to distribute to Brazil’s population in order to meet their demands and also to increase their profits.

TOK Definitions Page

Perspective: How you see it

Perception: How you take in

Shared Knowledge: Everybody knows

Personal Knowledge: Only you know

Knowledge Claim: To refute/challenge a statement

Counter Claim: If something is justified, it does not necessarily mean it is ‘known’

Paradigm: The way you see things and your perspective

Implication: Conclusion that can be drawn from something

Ethics: Moral principles/customs of a particular group. The society’s.

Moral: Things acceptable or not to the society. Your belief.

Powerful Women Representations

During class, we have looked at several media that depicted the presence of women as ‘strong’, ‘persistent’, and ‘powerful’, such as the movie trailer of, ‘The Proposal’. This movie, I have seen before, is about a man and a woman, which their relationship is a hired worker to a boss, who both forcefully have to pretend that they are a couple that are about to get engaged. The reason for this is because the woman (Margaret) has to deport the country and in order to prevent so from happening, she makes a decision to pretend that she and her worker (Andrew) are getting engaged. In this movie, the female character is portrayed as really powerful in comparison to the male. Margaret has a really strong power in terms of authority, mainly because she is the ‘boss’, so she is in the position of the social status where she can tell Andrew to do whatever she wants him to do. Because of this, her attitude towards him throughout the movie implies her obstinacy and powerfulness.


Furthermore, media that depicts women as strong can be found more on movies such like, the ‘Biohazard/Resident Evil’ series.

Resident Evil: Afterlife Trailer

In this movie series is a main female character called Alice, who physically fights against numerous number of residents who have turned into zombies because of a virus that was unintentionally spilled and spread through the breakage of a single chemical test tube. Although in reality it is nearly impossible that a women or even any human can defeat every single zombie that approaches, Alice has long survived in accordance to her physical fitness and her exceptional ability to handle guns and other weapons. She has not only defeated all zombies, but she has also been fighting to defeat her biggest rival, the Umbrella Corporation. This is a renown company for creating consumer products but on the back, they secretly conduct bio-genetic engineering, and the spilling of the ‘T-Virus’ was due to the accident of this company. Throughout the movie series, the Umbrella Corporation tries to capture Alice and create many clones of her because of her ‘desirable’  fit body. Alice tries to run away from those who work for Umbrella. The image of the female character is portrayed as very powerful, to the point that even hundreds of men who are attempting to capture only one woman, does not succeed. From this, I think that from my perspective, the women is depicted as too powerful, and far different to the reality (the reality of the physical ability of women).


Such media applies wrong interpretation to the society. It may impact the way women think; that being ‘strong’ and ‘powerful’ is the true definition to being ‘attractive’. It may also affect the views of men; that remaining more calm and maintaining obedience against women will make one attractive, and the men in the society may turn hesitant.

Analysing Stereotypes In Advertisements

During the past few English classes, we have been discussing about the definition of stereotypes, and how they are portrayed in the ‘media’ such as magazine advertisements, posters, and T.V commercials. Last week, we were assigned to look for advertisements that grossly portrayed stereotypes of people, and from the few of the posters that I found on the internet, the following poster from a renown beauty cosmetic franchise, ‘Dove’, gave me a really strong impression because it was the most intense, as it strongly depicted racial stereotypes.

(Image Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-1390312/Soap-giant-Dove-accused-racism-body-wash-advert.html)

The release date of this advertisement is undefined however, daily mail’s article criticizing this ad was published in May of 2011. As obvious, this poster advertises a series of body wash, which its target seems to be female of young age, teenagers to women in the mid 30s according to the physical appearance of the models. It seems to be another beauty advertisement however, racism is grossly portrayed.

As you may see, in the background of the three women are two big photos that show the before and after of an enlarged photo of the surface of a skin. Its own purpose for showing a before and an after is to show the effectiveness of cleaning the pores of skin by using this product. However, as seen, there are three women of different skin tone, hair colour, and body style, in front of the images.

 First of all, the ‘dark’ skinned women, who is slightly round and slump in terms of body shape stands at the very left position. The next person to the right is tan and pale, and a slightly slimmer than the woman at the very left. The third woman at the very right has a really light skin color, and has the most slimmest body style of them all. Because of the ‘before’ image on the left and the ‘after’ image on the right, it makes it seem as if the first dark-toned woman depicts the before and the light-toned woman is depicting the after. This gives an impression to the audience such that a lighter skin colour is often perceived as the definition of ‘beauty’ by the social and on the contrast, a darker skin colour is not so accepted. This poster may also convey a message that, by using this product, a person’s skin colour will get lighter, and from my point of view, this could mean that the ‘darkness’ from a dark skinned people is being raised as something dirty (for example mud or dirt) that could be washed, and it may portray that having dark skin is ‘dirty’. Additionally, the poster also challenges racial stereotypes by their body style. As mentioned in the beginning, the dark-toned woman has a slightly round body style as where the light-toned woman is slim even though body style of each person does not depend much on their race.

Secondly, the phrase endorsed at the bottom of the media as seen, ‘Visibly more beautiful skin from the most unexpected of places-your shower’ denotes as if ‘more’ beautiful skin means having a lighter-tone of skin. Here, I also think that the usage of the word ‘visible’ creates a great impact to the sentence because it is clearly pointing that beauty is referred to one’s physical appearance.