Two Types of Personal Knowledge

When I was around 3, I learned how to ride a bicycle. By that time, I was already able to ride a tricycle, so I was confident that I could ride a bicycle without any problem. However, I was mistaken. riding a bicycle was totally different from riding a tricycle.

My dad, in order to help me out, gave me numerous tips on how to ride a bicycle before hand. He explained to me that I would have to jump on the bike by putting one foot on the pedal, putting the other foot on the other pedal by swinging my leg behind, and then keep pedalling. He even demonstrated it right in front of me, so that I can understand what he meant. At this point, I have gained personal knowledge of “how to ride a bicycle” through sense perception, language, and also imagination. I saw, heard, and imagined how to ride a bicycle, which means that I “know” how to ride a bike. When I first tried, however, I fell. I fell again on my second try, then the third, fourth, and so on.

It felt weird because I knew what I needed to do, but my body just couldn’t react the way I wanted it to. However, as I practiced over and over, I have got the hang of it. I have learned, by actually experiencing, how to ride a bicycle. This time, the personal knowledge of “how to ride a bicycle” was knowledge by acquaintance instead of a simple practical knowledge. I have used my sense perception to balance myself and imagination to simulate myself riding a bike.

The factors made this experience noteworthy is the fact that I still use this knowledge. It has been modified, as in improved, since the first time I gained the knowledge, “how to ride a bicycle”. This knowledge is significant for me because without it, I would not be able to ride my bike to school every day.


Do animals have morals?

I believe that animals do have morals, but to a certain extent. Two experiments using chimps and rats demonstrated that although both chimps and rats could’ve taken all the food for themselves, they decided to release the trapped chimp/rat before and shred the food instead. This is an indication of morals in animals since the chimp and the rat showed empathy to the other even though it was unnecessary. Animals not only sense empathy, but also fairness/equality. Two similar experiments were performed on dogs and monkeys. Two dogs were asked to give a paw, where one received a treat for every paw while the other did not. Similarly, two monkeys handed a rock to receive a reward, one monkey received a cucumber (decent treat) while the other received a grape (exciting treat). In both cases, the unfairly treated animals (the dog with no treat and the monkey with cucumber) demonstrated some scornful attitude. The dog refused to follow the order, and the monkey threw the treat back at confederate and aggressively shook the cage. This experiment demonstrated that animals dislike inequality amongst each other, resulting in different behaviors. Researchers have provided evidences of animals displaying empathy and sense of fairness, which were believed to be present only in humans. Since both empathy and sense of equality is a part of morals, I believe that animals do, in fact, have some morals. However, whether if their morals are equivalent to humans or not is questionable.

Truth, Modernism, and Postmodernism

To what extent do you “care whether your beliefs are true”

I personally do not care whether my beliefs are true, and I believe that people should feel the same. Since all of our perspectives are subjective due to difference in our paradigms, I believe that there is no way of determining which beliefs are actually true. No body in the world can see the world or any situation objectively and therefore, every person has a different view of the world although they may be similar.

Since we cannot determine if our beliefs are true, why would anybody bother if their beliefs are true? I don’t think anybody would care if something is true is there is no right answer. Even if you care if your beliefs are true or not, how are you going to find it out? Finding what is the truth is a waste of time, so people should not care if their beliefs are true.

Before you believe anything, you are (or should be) skeptical. After you reassure the validity and accuracy of the information, you make the judgement whether you believe that information is true or not. Therefore, there is no point to this question posed by Bob Korn. We already have decided if our beliefs are true to ourselves before we believe in that information. Thus, we should not care whether our beliefs are true. However, this is only temporary since many knowledges update through researches and investigations. I think it is important to reassure the validity of your beliefs once in a while since you think a belief is true at the moment you believed in it only.

Lesson 1 Topic 3

I totally agree to the statement from the Talmud, “we see the world, not as it is but as we are”. Everybody has a different view of the world and that perspective is often biased. Therefore, the way in which we see the world is not how it actually is, but instead how we believe it is.

Everybody has their own unique perspective or the view of the world, which distinguishes a person from everybody else. It is easy to understand that everybody has different perspective because a person does not always agree with another person’s beliefs. For example, my favorite soccer team is Barcelona while my friends support Bayern, Chelsea, Arsenal and so on. This individual perspective comes from our paradigms which come from our unique personal experiences and backgrounds. Those unique experiences and backgrounds lead to biased perspective. For instance, a person might think that it is safe to cross the road on a red light; however, if that person has been hit by a car while crossing on a red light, then a person is more likely to think that it is unsafe to cross. Since nobody can have the same exact paradigm as another, every person views the world in their own unique way. Imagine that you are a supporter of New York Yankees. Your view of baseball is that the Yankees is the best team and its rival, Mets, is inferior. On the other hand, a person supporting the Mets sees Mets as the best team and condescends Yankees. This shows that we see the world as we are, meaning how we believe it is.  Although one of the perspective may actually be the way the world is, there is no way of determining the way the world is since every perspective is biased and we must agree on one biased perspective in order to determine the “correct” perspective.

Some may argue that due to common sense, people can agree on one perspective to determine the “correct” view of the world in some situation. An easy example would be the death of a close friend. People would argue that grief emerges in everyone in that situation despite the difference in perspectives because it is a common sense that we miss the person who died. However, as a result of difference in paradigms, every person has a different level or degree of grief and therefore, every person cannot have the same view in any situation.  In conclusion, we always see the world as we are since we all have different perspectives.

TOK Perspective Introductions

Perspective introductions

Logical fallacies are an argument that is not proven by any evidence, it is often what the person BELIEVES is right. Cognitive biases are mistakes that emerge from the errors in the person’s memory, social attribution, or calculations. While any evidence does not support logical fallacies, cognitive biases are often supported by errors resulting from an individual. As a result, it is more likely to misunderstand cognitive bias than logical fallacies.

I am most susceptible to projection bias because I usually assume that my friends agree with me and seek support/evidence whenever necessary.



  • When I see the opponent in a soccer game, they look better than they actually are. It is more like underestimating self rather than overestimating the opponent.
  • When I bought my soccer cleats that did not match my ability, I rationalized it by telling myself that I will become good enough to use it.
  • The humans in general, including me, are more worried about diseases like Ebola or malaria more than high blood pressure, stroke, heart attack, and so on.
  • When playing a music playlist, I often feel like the same song is being repeated more often than others even though every song is played fairly equal.
  • When I go to a restaurant I know, I usually order the same meal because I think others are inferior although I haven’t tried any of them.
  • Cheap brands (made in china) are less reliable and expensive brands are reliable. However, due to money issues, I tend to choose the middle price


I can minimize the susceptibility to these errors by asking others for their opinion and know as many perspectives as possible.

The Arts

1. The language is used to explain the art so that the audience can completely understand the purpose and the message behind it.

2. The key words are required to accurately describe or explain the art.

3. Art is the space. Although art has some shared knowledges, majority of the knowledges are personal, meaning it depends on what you believe. Similarly, the study of astronomy has shared knowledges such as the heliocentric theory, but a lot of the knowledges are unjustified, which means that it depends on what the person believes.

4. The convention serves as the base line of art. Without convention, there would be no way of determining if a piece of work is art or not since people base their boarder line between art and not art by learning convention, the shared knowledge.