IGCSE ICT Spreadsheet Formulas




=A1+A2 //Adds Cells A1 and A2

=C4-3 //Subtracts 3 from cell C4

=E7/J4 //Divides cell E7 byJ4

=N10*1.05 //Multiplies Cell N10 by 1.05

=R5^2 //Finds the square of cell R5



Adds up all of its arguments.


=SUM(A2,A3)//Adds the values in cells A2 and A3

=SUM(“5”, 15, TRUE) //Adds 5, 15 and 1. The text value “5” is first translated into a number, and the logical value TRUE is first translated into the number 1. The result is 21.

=SUM(A2:A4,15)//Adds the values in cells A2 through A4 first, and then adds 15.



=IF(what is being tested,what to do if true, what to do if false)

What is being tested: The condition you want to test

Value of true: Value you want returned if the result of “what to do if true” is true

Value of false: Value you want returned if the test of “what to do if false” is false


=IF(A2>B2,”Over Budget”,”OK”)




=VLOOKUP(what to find, where to look, what to return)



=COUNT(What range of cells to count if there are any numbers in them)


=COUNT(A2:A7)//Counts the number of cells that contain numbers in cells A2 through A7

=COUNT(A5:A7)//Counts the number of cells that contain numbers in cells A5 through A7

=COUNT(A2:A7,2)//Counts the number of cells that contain numbers in cells A2 through A7, and the value 2







If you had to achieve a mark of 40 for a Pass, 6o for a Credit and 80 for a Merit, with anything else being a Fail grade, an IF statement could look like this:




Counts the number of cells that meet a criterion; for example, to count the number of times a particular city appears in a customer list.


=COUNTIF(A2:A5,”apples”)//Counts number of cells with apples in cells A2 through A5

=COUNTIF(B2:B5,”>55″)//Counts the number of cells with a value greater than 55 in cells B2 through B5


Letter to 6th Grade Self

Dear mini Rhiannu,

First of all be prepared that at the end of each year you will be told you are moving, and you eventually do. In these three years of middle school I could have done sooo much more, so actually do some activities that you will enjoy because I know you won’t do it cause no one else is. Put yourself in a group of friends that you are actually comfortable in, it is so much nicer to spend middle school that way. At first middle school may seem way too different from primary, and yes it is different, but in a way also better. Don’t get so stressed and uptight about work, especially grades, keep them to yourself and you can say if someone asks or if it is in a conversation. But stay in school. Also, don’t be so afraid of singing in front of people it is actually fun. On the topic of that, go find Alina (who will soon be your best friend) and suggest to make a youtube channel with her and use mum’s camera.  I am also expecting you to still listen to Arctic Monkeys, but go look up IM5, The Vamps, Panic At The Disco, All Time Low, Ed Sheeran, 5 seconds of summer (especially 5SOS) and just look up a bunch of other music with Alina. Convince your sister’s favorite member to not be yours, because it will cause arguments. 6th grade was an extremely fun year and you will enjoy it a lot, if you just keep these things in mind it will make 6th grade even better. Honestly I don’t want to tell you anything bad that has happened or mistakes, cause they are important. So just keep being 6th grade Rhiannu 🙂 and prepare for future MAJESTICNESS.


Future Rhiannu


Copyright Reflection

A lot of people use different music, but copyright laws are important. Legally your only allowed to use 30 seconds of music or 10 percent, if its more you are then breaking this rule. Copyright last for around the 70 year period after the artist dies, also including when they are alive, this is only if the work has been published after 1977. I think that this is an acceptable amount of time to use music from other people. A lot of people create covers and mashups and that is usually borrowing all of the song. Also a lot of music is inspired by other songs and even sometimes uses the same chord progression. I do agree with this being the appropriate amount of time to use, but it is also very hard to just use this small amount of music because sometimes more is necessary. I think that you should be able to borrow music as long as you give credit to the artist, composer and publisher. I know that in some interviews artists talk about where they got their inspirations from, but this still isn’t very clear. There is some problems with crediting artists that are unknown, because it is hard to get information. There is also the problem with the original author not wanting their song to be used again or for commercial purposes and especially if they are not credited. It is respectful to ask the artist if you can use their song, but it is hard and sometimes almost impossible to get their email accounts or even if you just try connect with them with social medias they may not respond or they may respond to late. Overall, the process of borrowing music can be a pain, but it is something that could be worth it. In class I created a music mashup of three songs, because it was for educational purposes I didn’t follow these rules so thoroughly.

Music Mashup

In this unit I have been creating a mashup of three songs. To create a mashup it is important that the tempo, pitch and key are the same. I chose to play both instruments I included (piano and guitar) and also sing the little amount of lyrics I decided to include. Because I chose not to do it digitally it was easier for me The first song I chose was Give Me Love by Ed Sheeran, composed by Jake Gosling, Chris Leonard and Ed sheeran and the record label is Warner Music Group. The second song I used was Heartbreak girl by 5 seconds of summer, composed by Calum Hood,  Luke Hemmings, Steve Robson and Lindy Robbins.  The last song I used was Say Something by A Great Big World, composed by Ian Axel, Chad Vaccarino and Mike Campbell and published by Dan Romer. This is the mp3 of my final song:

I actually originally got this idea from a mashup me and my friend Alina created recently. It involves the same songs, but has a different arrangement. This is the video:


I was also in Sam’s mashup video and I play the guitar for her and helped arrange some of the things, but she also helped me. This is the video:

Furniture design: grade 8 design technology reflection

This recent unit in tech we had to create a chair made completely out of cardboard, tape and white glue. I was partnered with Miha and our target audience for the chair was teenage girls who like to go on their phones. I explain below the process of this unit.

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Final Chair










Miha and I asked 5 people from our target audience, which is teenage girl who use their phones/Iphones a lot, to answer our product test questions. Because our final chair wasn’t available to be tested, we had to change some of the questions so that it depending on the looks of the chair. Here is a table of the answers:

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I agree with most of these responses. I think that me and my partner focused more on trying to secure our chair and make sure it had everything we included in our plan and overall followed our product test and design specifications. As the people we asked to give feedback commented that our chair was not very aesthetically pleasing. I actually do agree with this, because as I said before we were focused on other things, although for the chair to look modern and good was part of the criteria. I disagree with the opinion that the chair looks balanced, the chair was actually slightly lifted on the side, but it was hard to see because of the angle the photo was taken. Apart from this I agree with all of the feedback we received.

Before designing our chair we created some design specifications that we used as guidlines when creating our chair. These are our must and must not specifications:

1. General: Our chair must be made from cardboard, tape and white glue.   

2. General: Our chair must not weigh more than 5kg.

Our chair was completely made out of cardboard, tape and white glue, but unfortunately we did not have the opportunity to to test how much weight it could hold. Because the chair was placed low to the floor the seat itself would be able to hold the weight, but the back would break.

3. Function: Our chair must be able to adjust to the person needs, for example being able to hold different objects.

4. Function: Our  chair must not be unbalanced.

Our chair was supposed to have easily accessible places to place your things, but after completing the proto-type and starting the chair it was very hard to do. It was not able to hold different objects, and it was only unbalanced by the box at the back of the chair, that contained the shelfs/open drawers.

5. Aesthetics/Originality: Our chair must look modern.

6. Aesthetics/Originality: Our chair must not look like peers designs.

I think that our chair did look pretty modern, but it also kind of looked like a beach chair. It didn’t look like any of my peers chairs, but everyone’s chair was completely different.

7. Safety/Comfort: Our chair must be stable and balanced.

8. Safety/Comfort: Our chair must not have cardboard pieces sticking out.

The chair was stable enough to sit in, but was still slightly unbalanced making it uncomfortable in some places. There were only cardboard pieces sticking out at the back of the chair, which is where we had most trouble.

9. Quality/Strength: Our chair must sustain the original quality after multiple people have sat in it.

10. Quality/Strength: Our chair must not collapse under the weight of an average 8th grade student (specifically a teenage girl)

We did not have the opportunity for multiple people to sit in our chair, but we did ask Marina (an average 8th great student, also part of our target audience) and the chair did not collapse once she had sat in it.

In the investigation stage we completed a lot of different things. To build up to the investigation stage we did a lot of research on art deco. Here are some of the things I researched:

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The first thing we did was design chairs that had art deco in them. After deciding on a target audience we interviewed people within that target audience to see what they wanted in a chair, and this was extremely helpful. After this I researched three questions that were relevant to the answers I received form the survey and would help create our chair. We then created a design brief that included design specifications, plan outline and product test. I think that I did well in investigation further into the questions we chose to research, because I included sources, drawings/diagrams and a lot of text. I could have created my design specifications better, because a lot of them were similar.

In the design stage my partner and I designed three different designs based on our survey and research/investigation. This included figuring out the dimensions and pro’s and con’s for each chair. After choosing the final chair we the went into more detail and I created a planometric drawing and Miha created a assembly drawing. I think I did well in designing chairs that fit my target audience, but I could have been more accurate with the dimensions.

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The next step was creating a quater size prototype, this was for our plan stage. I think that the prototype is what I should have improved on, although I was able to see what didn’t go well, but I didn’t create the actual prototype very detailed. I think my plan  was detailed and I think was clear to show the process. If I were to do this again I would add images to make it easier.

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The very last stage was creating the actual chair. I think that although our chair didn’t exactly go as we planned we did meet most of the design specifications and tried to use a limited amount of cardboard, especially because we didn’t actually have much anyway. I think in this stage we spent to much time worrying about exact measurements in the parts that didn’t matter and then resulted in a wonky chair. I think I did very well in explaining what we changed and why we changed it, as part of the last chair.

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Innovation does have an impact on our society because it changes things, it makes us adapt to the new situation and our new surroundings. I think that innovation will change people’s attitudes, because it is something that everyone has to  get used to. Their attitude may change for the good or not. Overall I enjoyed this unit, but would have enjoyed it more if we didn’t have such limited time.

The Shape I’m In (Ceramics)

This unit in art has been all about ceramics. Out task for this unit was to create a cup that has good design and can serve both form and function. We also learned a lot of skills in this unit and learned how to design and create a cup.

When I was designing my cup I looked at the work we completed in Analysis A, because I could then see how to make my cup design successful. I looked at a book called “North American Indian Designs” by Eva Wilson, for inspiration. I did use some of the ideas from this book, but I also took some ideas from aboriginal art. I included the theme of using dots and lines together to create a design. I did this because I thought it would be interesting to use different cultural influences in one cup. I chose to shape my cup into more of a square shape. It didn’t turn out perfectly angular, but you can tell it is supposed to be, especially considering the handle is also angular. Because the design uses small circles everywhere it makes the cup a bit softer instead of everything being square. I also used light colours, so that the black dots would stand out.

In this unit we didn’t have much time. The first thing we did was learn some necessary vocabulary for this unit, things like, glaze, bat, wedging and banding wheel. We then experimented with the clay and created small objects, this helped us get use to the clay so it would be easier to create our final cup. As an in class assessment we did an Analysis on three artists cups, this helped me with finding ideas for my cup. The next stage was planning the shape of our cup, which we then used to create the cup. After this our cups went into the electric kiln for their bisque firing, this meant we couldn’t add any more changes to the cups form. On top of the cups shape design we created two designs and annotated the one we thought would fit best. I then transferred my design and under glazed on to my cup and after making sure it was completely dry I used transparent glaze to glaze my cup. It went through the final stage of the kiln and was then complete.

My process:

Criteria A Analysis

Criteria A Analysis

Cup shape plan and design plan

Cup shape plan and design plan

"Final Cup" Ceramics Rhiannu Cardiff 2014

“Final Cup”
Rhiannu Cardiff


















I asked the people around me to see which cup design I should use. I also asked if my cup looked balanced and ready to be glazed and put in the kiln.

I found it difficult to actually create the form of my cup, while sticking to my plan. I liked the idea of having a square cup, but my original idea was not to have a square handle. I had to change it because I was running out of time. Time management is another thing I thought I struggled with. I was successful in applying my design accordingly to the plan and I think it turned out very similar. I also should have taken note of the cup shrinking when the water from the cup evaporated.

To improve this process I would spend less time creating the actual shape of the cup but still be detailed I could do this by not messing around. I also could improve on smoothing the cup. In my research I could have found out what more words mean, because then it would have been useful for the overall process.

Overall I really enjoyed this unit, because it was a bit more free. Although we had to just create a cup there was no specification of the shape or what type of design, this made it easier because we didn’t have to follow guidelines, but also harder because we had to think of designs that would work with our cup. Ceramics is something I would like to try again in the future and I would have experience.

What is a historian?

A  historians is an expert who studies history. They research one significant event in history, to do this they look at primary and secondary sources. Primary sources are original records from people who were actually there or participated somehow in the event, so records like Audio, Images, Text and Objects. A secondary source is created by a historian who analysed a primary source.  History can be told through media and story, I learned this after doing a analysis of different multi-medias. For our main project of this unit we had to create a video about three generations. After completing documents to learn and understand more about the significant concept, what is the role of the individual in society? and the unit question, history can influence the individual and the individual can influence history, we started our main project.

For the three generations project we had to create interview questions that would be relevant to this topic and were not google-able. I answered these questions and also asked my Bampa and Dad these questions. I used the information they gave me to create a video with images that compared all three generations. I found it easy to gather information, but I found it hard to chose images and information to use in the video that was interesting. I also found it challenging to edit the video to make it interesting, as I could have included music. Another challenge I faced when interviewing my Bampa was somethings were hard to remember. My main message in this video was how different each generation was due to the accessible technology.

Technology would change the way history is recorded and remembered because of the resources available. Now we can save information on different devices and also record events clearly that can then be analysed. We have more ways to record history through technology, especially compared to the past. Historians used primary sources like letters to analyse and those letters may have been damaged. Future historians can analysis events that happened to us through the technology we use to record it. Although there is still a big chance the source could be damaged, it is more likely to be accurate.

Three generations project:

Infomercial Reflection

This unit has been about voice and persuasion. First of all we looked at different infomercials and found things about them that was the same. For example the tone of the presenter/narrators voice, how happy everyone is and a demonstration. We learnt these things so we could then use it in our infomercial, which was our final assignment. We split up into groups for our project. Every group created a product that most likely wouldn’t sell, but they still had to be persuasive. My groups product was Air Socks. Here us our final infomercial:

8A Drama: Infomercials5 from YIS Arts on Vimeo.

Using a plan my group brainstormed ideas for our infomercial. We decided that because socks come in all sizes, our Air Socks would as well. The Air Socks are targeted for people with stinky feet, this product would allow their feet to breath, meaning they wouldn’t stink anymore. It is a product that probably wouldn’t actually sell, but we tried to make it so that people watching it would feel they related to the people in the infomercial. Our target audience was all ages, but most likely younger children wouldn’t watch it, but their parents would. We related to all ages by showing three examples of people at different ages (not specific ages) and situations that they were in.

The overall structure of our infomercial was an introduction to the product, then further information about the product, three demonstrations of it changed peoples lives with a short interview and then some purchasing information. It ended with a jingle. Throughout the whole infomercial Mario was a presenter, so he would either be speaking about the product on stage or narrating something off stage. I think that our infomercial had a good structure because we included all of the main factors of one, at the end we also had all of the contact information. To improve our structure, we could have added additional information between the demonstrations.

My group didn’t involve a slogan, which something we should have included. We did include a jingle though, we sang it at the end of our infomercial and considering it was catchy it would be stuck in the audiences head. Considering we had to play a role for our parts, we used energy to create that character, so I think that our energy level was appropriate for an infomercial. We used some purr words, but could have made them more obvious. Because this infomercial was directed to people with stinky feet, we made it a appealing to them by making them think it was better for their lives. At one point I had to have a very emotional and depressed tone.

I think that my best skill was using a sad tone to persuade the audience that my life was so much worse before the Air Socks. I think that I should have improved on using the purr words, because its hard to do that when you are being depressed. I could have come up with a way to incorporate that into my story. Another group that I thought was good was, AJ, Marina, Kate and Spencer’s group:

8A Drama: Infomercials6 from YIS Arts on Vimeo.

This groups video was captivating because they used different tones through out the video. Especially considering that Spencer was absent, I think that they persuaded the audience the best they could.

Visual art: Reflection on Digital Character Illustrations.

In this unit we have been looking at stereotypes and where the line is for something to become offensive and how you can create an image either by using font, or by basing it off font and other images.

The font that I was assigned was Wide Latin. It was hard to create a character based on this font that wasn’t stereotypical. I decided it would be a good idea to come up with a back story for my character, that wasn’t stereotypical in a bad way. I looked at some cartoon characters who are larger and what there personalities are like. Most of them were happy and have a good life, so my character had some of those personality traits. To write with a picture, I had to consider what kind of clothing, props and most importantly colours, that I would use. After choosing to show my characters occupation through his clothing, I decided to use warmer colours to show that he would be living in a hot country and has a friendly personality.

I think that the strength in this character is the clothing I chose and the colours. The clothing that he is wearing is what a baker/butcher would wear to work, and that is what I was intending for. Another decision I made that strengthened my design, was the characters action pose. I decided to have him leaning on one leg and waving, because that represents that he is waving at someone and considering he is smiling it implies he is a friendly person. I created a colour scheme using a website that created warm colours. When putting them into my character on the Adobe Illustrator, I found that the contrast in colours affected how the character is portrayed. One weakness in my choice of colours is the boots and the background colours, because they kind of clash considering they are both light colours. Another weakness is that it isn’t so clear about his nationality.

During the research stage of this project I created a mind map that included some decisions I made for my character, but also some history. I needed to add more sources for my research, because it wasn’t clear where I got the information from. A lot of the designs of my character in my book were exactly the same, with only a little bit of change in the colour. I could have changed the line of action to see how it would affect the character.

While creating this character I had to be careful about not making him stereotypical. I think that if the character has some stereotypical traits it helps to identify what their font is. I think that as long as it’s not offensive then it’s ok.  A good way to see if it is offensive is to ask other people for their opinion. It made it kind of hard to design a character because I was constantly trying to make sure that I wasn’t crossing the line of offensive and trying to create an image for my character. Overall this unit taught me about identifying fonts, identifying character traits, how to draw cartoon characters and I also learned the skill of using the live trace and live paint tools in Adobe Illustrator, which I can use in other projects.

This is my final character:

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James Bond Soundtrack Reflection

Recently in music we have been doing a James Bond Soundtrack assessment. We were given the trailer for Skyfall and had to create a sound track, using instruments and sound effects, that matched the videos. This is our final product:

I have written more detailed information in my workbook.


In music we have been looking at movie soundtracks. We used the significant concept and unit question for this task. The significant concept is: Expressive elements can enhance the message and our unit question is: How is music used in films and visual media? In this unit we started by analyzing a few movie soundtracks. We looked at the tempo, pitch, instruments and more. We used these to determined the mood of the soundtrack. During this unit we also learned new vocabulary, like leit motif. We also learned different themes so that we could then use them for further projects.

Our main task for this unit was to use the James Bond Sky fall trailer and create a soundtrack for it. I was partnered with Sam and our first step was to create a cue sheet. We used themes and leit motifs from previous worksheets for our trailer. Whilst creating our cue sheets we timed the music with a video clip that we thought matched the musics mood the most. After doing this we then recorded the music over the trailer. We used piano to record it, because we thought that it was a good instrument that the sound could then be changed and edited. It is hard to completely follow your cue sheet, and we found that some of our decisions didn’t work. We also added some sound effects and added them to the cue sheets.

In my workbook I also have a page that explains why I used the music and sound effects at that point in the trailer. I also have the music sheets we used to create this soundtrack, and practically everything we have done in this unit and a lot of it connects to the final project.