Tourism Highlights

  1. What were the top three countries in terms in international arrivals in 2014
    France, United States, Spain
  2. What were the top three countries in terms of international receipts in 2014?
    United States, Spain, China
  3. Explain the difference in patterns depicted by your answers of question 1 and 2.
    Maybe in France there were less products to buy and most of the money gained was from travel money. However in the other countries they may have had more souvenirs and such so more money was spent on products plus the travel capital gained.
  4. Describe the recent trends of tourism in Africa.
    Tourism in Africa has not increased as much as other countries. Nor has the gain in capital from tourism. However every year they are increasing by a small percentage margin.
  5. Describe the changes in international tourist arrivals between 1950 and 2010.
    In 1950s there were 25million international tourists. In 2010 there were 1.133 billion international tourists.
  6. In your opinion, why has tourism increased since the 1950s?
    Globalisation: transportation and advertisement of other countries.

Christopher Colombus

Has your perspective of Columbus changed?
Yes my perspective of Columbus has changed because beforehand I didn’t know that inspired the killing of that many native americans, I also didn’t know what he encouraged huge amounts of human trafficking.

Of native americans?
The only thing that I see differently of the native americans is that I did not know of their tribal wars, nor of their tribes in the first place. I now feel sympathy towards them and what they had to go through.

How can you read history and be aware of biases?
The way we can be aware of biases is by looking in depth at the things that are stated and also see what the historian is focusing on. In the reading that I looked at, I could see that the historian was focusing on the trade between the two parts of the world rather than what the natives had to go through.

If you were to write about columbus, what themes would you focus on, knowing that you cannot write everything about everything?
I would research about what the laws were back then about slavery and how bad he really was not only in our eyes but in the eyes of the world back then. I would also research about what other things he did to the natives and if he really did commit those crimes.

What themes did your readings choose?
The themes that my reading chose were that of trade, and a little bit of colonialism.

Twins Separated at Birth

Summarising, the video that we watched in class; there was an underground experiment where twins were separated after birth and they met up after 35 years. They have peculiar similarities. The experiment supports the concept of nature affecting human behaviour more than nurture.

What unethical decision was responsible for the situation described in this video?

It was unethical to secretly conduct the experiment while the subjects didn’t even know that they were lab rats for 35 years.

Can you think of situation when it might be justified to be unethical in the pursuit of scientific knowledge of genetics or evolution?

We use animals to conduct experiments, and there is always the possibility that they are harmed or die. However the knowledge that we accumulate can help humans develop things to save lives. This justifies the unethical act.

What is the most powerful evidence in this video that nature is more influential than nurture in explaining, predicting, or understanding human behavior?

The twins didn’t know that they had a dopple ganger and they met after 35 years. They certainly had different experiences over all, but they still shared similarities including the German movie they like. The environments they grew in weren’t similar at all but the natural part of them created these similarities they share. It shows that nature can be just as influential as nurture when it comes to identity.

InS – The Bystander Effect

How does diffusion of responsibility play a role?
It affects our thinking when it comes to guilt and the amount of people that are around us diffusing the responsibility/guilt if we are to not do it.

Social influence
Social influence is when we look at and follow what other people are doing, whether it be dismissing the problem altogether or actually helping to solve it. It can be a problem when no one actually does anything in the first place, in which no one else will initiate any sort of action.

Audience Inhibition
This makes part of a person’s judgement on if making the problem your own business is either appropriate, or mandatory. There is always the possibility that one offers help when none is needed in the first place, leading to embarrassment and whatnot.

Arousal
Arousal is when our own bodies evoke a decreased heart rate response to the situation when we observe someone in need or in danger. This response can easily be followed up with the fight-or-flight response, mainly when the situation is dire, or is perceived to be an emergency. This arousal state makes us more motivated to actin some way to revert back to a normal state. The stronger the arousal reaction, the more likely someone will help.

Cost-reward
This is the next part to arousal, it is basically the evaluation of the consequences of intervening or not. Rewards can greatly increase the incentive to help however. The cost can be from intervening and not intervening respectively, and the perceived cost usually grows larger with the seriousness of the situation.

Similarity
This is how someone can relate to someone else, whether it be through race, clothing, or stature. If someone is of a similar stature to the one who needs help, then their chances of helping them increase.

Mood
Being in a good mood can encourage attraction towards people that you don’t know, and changes someone’s attention to positive features. This can change the way someone identifies costs can be less thorough, and people will focus less on risk. On the other hand a bad mood however having a less powerful influence, can make the person increase their own self-focus.

Competence and Experience
This is quite simple, if you feel that you have the ability to help and that you have been in the situation many times before, you are much more likely to help. This relates back to the guilt of not helping because now that you are certain that you’re able to help, not helping would be much worse.

InS – Motivation to Help

What is the difference between altruism and prosocial behaviour?

Altruism is a type of prosocial behaviour in which one makes decisions based on the wellbeing of the other person and not for any personal gain at all. Prosocial behaviour is the general includes egoistic motivation and altruistic motivation.

Why do people help people?

There are many reasons that include gaining favour from someone, raising their social status, receiving some sort of reward, and having their own self-esteem rise.

Individually think of a situation in which you helped others, and analyse the reason/motivation for why you did it.

I normally help people almost every night whether it be by communicating through social media or explaining concepts to them. The real reason behind why I do it, is because whenever I ask for help I feel guilty for using other people’s time. However by helping others I can feel like I’m doing the right thing and basically paying back the time I used in the first place (even though I rarely ever ask anyone for help). Another reason is because I have absolutely nothing else to do with so much free time on my hands.

Nature VS Nurture

I think that our genes determine just as much about ourselves as our environment. Recently in developing countries there has been a rise of obesity, even up to 35% of Kuwait’s population is obese[1]. The possible causes for this were because of how more high fat and sugar products are being imported, as well as less exercise was being done because of the different jobs that become available. This is nurture. However nature plays a big part in this as well. Humans in poor countries originally adapted to conserve as many calories in there bodies as possible. However now that they are able to consume many more calories because of development, they store way too many fats and there original adaptations became their fall.

[1] Hoffman, Daniel J. “Obesity in Developing Countries: Causes and Implications.” Food, Nutrition and Agriculture. Agriculture and Consumer Protection, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2015.