Currently in our I&S (individuals and societies) class, we are learning about different countries. We are mainly focusing about the economy and the big differences of countries. This post is about an assessment where we chose 2 countries and investigate the differences and see some correlations. My main point of view in this assessment is based on the average income per person. I will find if the average income per person can affect each country’s population problems and birth problems. I will be looking at Cambodia for a less economic country and Switzerland for a more economic country.
Life Expectancy Rate and Information about 2 Countries:
First of all, Switzerland is a MEDC which means “more economically developed country” and Switzerland is a rich country compared to the average income per person. Switzerland is economically developed and less debt compared to other countries. I will use America and Japan for comparing (which are both MEDC). Japan’s average debt per citizen is around $80,000 and in America, the average debt per person is around $57,000 however the average debt per person in Switzerland is only around $16,000.
The income per person was increasing from the beginning but the problem was that the life expectancy was not increasing. The income per person is currently $40,000. However the problem about the life expectancy was solved on around 1935. The 10 years between 1935 to 1944, the life expectancy increased from 32 years old to 43 years old. From then, the life expectancy correlates with the income per person. The higher income per person there is, the life expectancy increases. By 2010, the average income per person was more than 40,000 PPP$ and the life expectancy was around 77 years old. We can see that Switzerland became richer and has longer life expectancy. Also, by this information, it is clear that the more money people has, the more longer you can live.
First of all, Cambodia is a LEDC which means “less economically developed country” and Cambodia is a poor country compared to other countries. The average income per person is very low compared to the average income per person in the world. The income per person is around $4,000 and it is a tenth (1/10) (10%) of Switzerland’s average income per person. The life is low too, currently being 67 which is 10 years faster than Switzerland. Also, there was a time where Cambodia’s life expectancy became 22 and was very low. By this, it can show that the more poor you are, the lower the life expectancy is.
Infant Mortality Rate:
The Infant Mortality Rate is the amount of 0-5 years old dying per 1,000 born. So the more higher the Infant Mortality Rate is, the more baby dies. At the beginning, Cambodia’s Infant Mortality Rate was 380 which means that around 40% of babies die from when they were babies. On the other hand, Switzerland was high being 350 babies dying which is 35% of babies dying. Both countries had many babies dying at the beginning. However little by little, both countries Infant mortality Rate decreased. Currently, Cambodia’s Infant Mortality Rate is 29. This seems low, but it is still a bit high being 2.9% of babies dying. Although, Switzerland’s Infant Mortality Rate is 2.4 and it is extremely low and the percentage is 0.24%. This is very low and it is 10% of the Infant Mortality Rate compared to Cambodia. As you know Switzerland is a MEDC and Cambodia is a LEDC. By the information, we can see that the more rich a country it is, the more babies survive and grow up or in other words, the more rich the country is, the less babies lose their lives.
Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand of population per year. I connected this topic with the Infant Mortality rate and noticed a connection. The Infant Mortality Rate for Cambodia is high and many babies die. However, in Cambodia the birth rate is extremely high being around 50 babies per thousand. Switzerland at this time was 30 babies per thousand. There is a big gap and as you may know, at this time too, Switzerland was rich. Currently, Cambodia is 24 babies per thousand and Switzerland is 10 babies per thousand. This difference is big and Cambodia has 2 times more babies per thousand compared to Switzerland. Again, I will compare this data with the Infant Mortality Rate. I saw that the higher the Infant Mortality rate it is, the higher birth rate is (Only comparing these 2 countries). I infer that since the Infant Mortality Rate is high in Cambodia, the Cambodian people think that they need to have more babies to increase their population. By this the richer countries have lower birth rate (I think they are lower because they are sure that the babies won’t die) and the poorer countries have higher birth rates (I think the birth rate is high because poor countries are not sure if the baby is going to survive).
The population rate is basically the population (people living in a certain area) in a country. In Cambodia, there are many people living which is about 15,580,000 people and in Switzerland, there are about 8,299,000 people living. Cambodia has approximately 2 times more people compared to Switzerland. This is because as I said before, Cambodia has 2 times more of the birth rate which makes the population grow 2 times more than Switzerland every year. However, compared to the beginning and now, the population hasn’t had a sporadic change, but it is pretty stable. Comparing to the other countries in the world, both Cambodia and Switzerland have less population. I think this can’t be helped because thinking about the size of both countries, the amount of population of each can be pretty large.
The fertility rate is the number of live births per 1000 women between the ages of 15 and 44 years. This is very similar to the birth rate but for the fertility rate, there is a limited age period that is being recorded. When having a child, if you’re from in between 15 to 44, you are in the zone of the fertility rate and you will count as a part of it. In Cambodia, just like the birth rate, at the beginning it was extremely high but as years go past, the fertility rate dropped down. At the beginning, the fertility rate was 7 children per woman. This is extremely high and comparing to our normal lives, this is very rare. However by time, the fertility rate dropped in the same pace and currently the fertility rate dropped to 2.8. On the other hand, Switzerland had a fertility rate of 4.3 at the beginning but 1909 to 1915, the fertility rate suddenly dropped to less than 3. From then, the fertility rate kept on decreasing and ended up (currently) being 1.5. By looking at the two examples, the richer a country is, the less fertility rate it is and the poorer a country is, the higher the fertility rate is. This is very similar to the birth rate too.
VIDEO INFORMATION (MUST READ)
Hello, today I will be talking about the difference between two countries, Cambodia and Switzerland using a site called gapminder.org. First of all, Switzerland is a MEDC which stands for “more economically developed country” and Cambodia is a LEDC which stands for “less economically developed country.” Looking at the graph, income per person, Cambodia and Switzerland has a pretty large gap. Cambodia at 1800, the average income per person was around 1000 dollars and at the same time, Switzerland was 3000 dollars per person. However by time, the gap widened and currently both countries boosted their income per person a lot. Cambodia, currently being 3000 dollars per person, boosting 3 times more from 1800, Switzerland currently being 56,000 dollars per person, boosting 18 times more comparing to 1800. Both countries improved, however Switzerland currently has 18 times more income per person than Cambodia.
Going on to my first point, life expectancy. This graph has a correlation and the richer a country is, the longer the life expectancy is. I think that this happens because the more money a country has, the better medication they can have. If the income per person is high, then every person, when they have a life threatening disease, they have the money to afford good medication but if the income per person is low, and a person gets a life threatening disease, they won’t have the money to afford great medication. Looking at the graph, this statement is true because the more righter the x-axis moves, it means that the income per person is increasing and at the same time, on the y-axis, the points are going higher which means that the life expectancy is becoming longer. Basically, if each dot point moves diagonally right-up, the correlation consists.
Now to my second point, child mortality vs income per person. My guess was that the higher the income per person is, the lower child mortality would be because of the medication issue I talked about. I was correct and as can see, Cambodia has a higher child mortality rate compared to Switzerland. On 1800, both countries had a high mortality rate, Cambodia being around 40% of babies dying, Switzerland being 35% of babies dying. However as both countries increased the income per person and the medication level increased, the child mortality rate dropped a lot. Currently, Cambodia’s child mortality rate is 33 children out of a 1000 which is 3.3%, improving a lot compared to 1800. Also Switzerland right now child mortality rate is 3.7 children out of 1000 which is 0.37% being very low and 10 times better than cambodia. Both countries have dropped their child mortality rate but even now in Cambodia, many children are losing their lives. 3.3% may look like a small number but it is basically 1 person dying out of 30 people and this is not a very low rate. Again, the more money a country has, the lower the mortality rate is and the higher the chance that a baby can survive to the age above 5.
My third point is the crude birth rate vs the income per person. This is an interesting graph as: the lower the income per person it is, the higher the birth rate is. Many LEDC’s such as Cambodia is more of an agricultural country and they crop food and do farm work. Since they do these kind of jobs, lots of people would be needed to be involved in the work. Due to this, many parents in LEDC’s purposely give birth many times so they can have more children that can help them work. This is one of the major reasons Cambodia’s birth rate is high. On the other hand, Switzerland is not a agricultural country and for the adults, they do not need many children working with them and helping them to work. This is why many MEDC’s have low birth rates. Comparing Cambodia and Switzerland, the difference is large and Cambodia during the 1800, had a birth rate of 48 children out of 1000 and Switzerland only having 30 children out of 1000. As time passes, the birth rate decreases, however Cambodia still being high, being 24 children out of 1000, and Switzerland being 10 children out of 1000. The difference is huge and even now, Cambodia has 2.5 times more of birth rate compared to Switzerland.
My fourth point is very similar to the crude birth rate. The fourth point is about the fertility rate. Like the birth rate, in LEDC’s the fertility rate is higher than the MEDC’s. This is the same reasons as I said about the birth rate and the agricultural problem. In 1800, Cambodia’s fertility rate was really high, in average a single woman having 7 children. Currently many people may have sisters and brothers but in Cambodia that time, in a single family, there were 7 brothers/sisters. At the same time, 1800, Switzerland’s fertility rate was 4.1. Currently, that may be a lot but during the 1800, the fertility rate of 4.1 was pretty low. As time went, both countries fertility rate decreased. Cambodia has decreased a lot and currently the fertility rate is 2.8 which is a little bit high at this time. Switzerland is on average being 1.6 children out of 1 woman. The graph is very similar to the birth rate and now I will show you the crude birth rate vs fertility rate.
My bonus graph is fertility rate vs mortality rate. On this graph, the graph is going diagonally, right-up. This means that the more child mortality is high, the higher the total fertility. This is because if the child mortality is high, basically many children die when they are still young. By this, after parents give birth but the baby dies before 5, the parents would want the baby again and they would give birth again. Basically the higher the child molarity is, the more parents give birth to babies if their baby dies before 5. As I said before and before, Cambodia generally has a higher fertility rate compared to Switzerland because of farming and agriculture so in the graph, we can see the difference between Cambodia and Switzerland again.
These were my 4 indicators I was going to show you in the video and one extra fertility rate vs mortality rate and I compared the differences of Cambodia, a LEDC, less economically developed country and Switzerland, a MEDC, more economically developed country. I hope you enjoyed the video and learned about the differences.