Blood doping is the misuse of techniques that increase one’s blood cell level, which allows the body to transport more oxygen to muscles. This improves athletes’ performances, since they can produce more energy. According to World Anti-doping Agency (WADA), there are three methods for blood doping: erythropoietin (EPO), synthetic oxygen carriers, and blood transfusions.
EPO is a hormone that the human body produces, and it stimulates red blood cell production. By injecting EPO in one’s body, it increases the amount of oxygen that the blood can carry to the muscle. This substance is used to treat anemia in medical sites. However, it can lead to severe health risks when athletes misuse it, including heart disease, stroke, and embolism.
Synthetic oxygen carriers are purified proteins or chemicals that carry oxygen. Although this substance is used for emergency medical purposes when human blood is unavailable, there is a risk of blood infection, and misusing it has the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
There are autologous and homologous blood doping in blood transfusions. Autologous blood doping is the transfusion of one’s own blood that has been stored for use, while homologous blood doping is the transfusion of other’s blood. This technique increases one’s blood cell concentration. Homologous blood doping has a risk that another person’s blood may have virus, which could pass to the recipient. Like other techniques, unnaturally high red blood cell levels increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, and pulmonary or cerebral embolism.
Blood doping is prohibited from tournaments. WADA publishes a list of prohibited compounds every year, and it is tested through urine collection and blood collection. UK Anti-Doping said that blood doping is, “methods to gain advantage over others in competition, is cheating, and fundamentally contrary to the spirit of sports”.
Blood doping should stay banned, especially for its ethical impact. Allowing blood doping is unfair to athletes who cannot access these substances and methods. Furthermore, majority believes that competitions should be about practical skills, not artificially enhanced performances. Also, blood doping increases risks of diseases, as it increases the blood cell level unnaturally. Therefore, accepting it would give disadvantage to athletes who are pressured to use blood doping by their coach despite the health damage.
However, this is a controversial topic. British heavyweight boxing champion Tyson Fury questioned, “Why don’t they make drugs totally legal? Then everybody would be taking drugs and it would be fully fair. You’ve got all these people taking drugs, and when they face a man who’s not taking drugs, that man’s at a disadvantage”. Since blood doping techniques are used in medical sites, they cannot be illegal by the countries, so the substances are much easier to obtain compared to other kinds of doping. According to WADA, there are 2% of all blood and urine samples collected each year resulting in positive tests for banned substances. However, according to Men’s Health, “by most experts’ estimates, the true number of dopers is anywhere 14% and 39%.” This shows the difficulty of detecting every athletes who use blood doping, and this is unfair for athletes who follow regulations and do not use blood doping.
Blood doping should be banned from tournaments. If sports committees allow blood doping, competitions will not be based on the athlete’s sport ability, but the ability to access methods and substances. Allowing blood doping means encouraging athletes to use blood doping, and a wide number of people will question the ethic of this problem.
“About Doping in Sport.” UKAD, UK Anti-Doping, ukad.org.uk/our-organisation/what-we-do/about-doping/.
“Blood Doping.” World Anti-Doping Agency, WADA, 15 Jan. 2015, http://www.wada-ama.org/en/questions-answers/blood-doping.
Dyke, Heather. “Why Is Doping Wrong Anyway?” The Conversation, The Conversation, 9 Aug. 2016, theconversation.com/why-is-doping-wrong-anyway-63057.
Masoliver, Dan. “Should Blood Doping Be Legal in Sport.” Men’s Health, Hearst UK Well-Being Network, 27 Sept. 2016, http://www.menshealth.co.uk/fitness/should-blood-doping-be-legal-in-sport.
Describe a time when you engaged with a different culture and the strategies you used to communicate effectively. Reflect on how this influenced your thinking about language and communication.
In February 2018, I visited Cambodia for a week as part of a service trip. When I got off the airplane, I was surprised by the different environment, but I was more surprised later on, when I got on the van to a more rural area, as the livings of people seemed so different. It has been around 40 years since the Khmer Rouge, and I realized the state of this country. One of our main activities of the trip was to help with the construction a school for Cambodia children. Most of the time, we constructed the school along with Cambodian children and teachers. At first, I was nervous whether I would be able to communicate with Cambodian people, despite not knowing any Khmer. However, as I worked on the construction along with the children, I soon was able to communicate with them through hand gestures and some English, since they knew some English. The children even taught me how to speak simple Khmer, like saying ‘hello’, ‘thank you’, ‘sorry’, ‘good-bye’, ‘thirsty’, counting numbers, and so on. From this experience, it made me realize how hand gesture can be used even with the language barriers. I also realized how facial expressions can communicate a lot. We laughed and smiled a lot, and even if we couldn’t have long complicated conversations with each other, we understood that we all were enjoying the precious time of interacting with each other. This experience strongly influenced how I think about language and communication, that the only way to communicate isn’t through verbal language. Human beings are so versatile, and we can communicate through our action, gesture, and expression. This experience made my anxiousness towards the language barriers smaller, and I think that I will be able to do much more well at communicating with people of different culture and languages from this experience.
I went to Okinawa for my Grade 10 field studies. It was a valuable experience, and it was my first time diving. Prior to the actual trip, we had to study for quizzes. The study was a good amount of read, and since we finished three of the five quizzes before going on the trip, we had lots of time to focus on the dive. Although I was a bit nervous, as soon as I got to the ocean, that nervousness flew somewhere away, and instead, I was really excited for the dive. During the dive, I saw many aquatic life, and they were mesmerizing.
I learnt from this trip, not only the technical skills that it take to dive, but the importance of getting along and communicating with buddies and instructors. With our PADI Open Water Dive, we must dive in buddies, and it is our own responsibility to take care of each other. We helped each other in setting up our equipments, such as the BCD. We also planned where to go and dive for our last dive. This experience helped me grow as a learner, specifically improving my collaboration skill.
I really appreciate our teachers, local instructors, and other staffs for giving us such a precious experience. I wished that there was a choice for Okinawa in Grade 11, so that we could take a license for the PADI Advanced Open Water Dive. I highly recommend the following students to take this opportunity and try diving.
Since the meeting last Monday, our Grade 9 Group in Cambodia Service club decided to do a coin drive through middle school, high school, and teachers to raise money.
The grade with the least money would win, meaning that students had to put money in other grades’ jar to make them lose.
We posted the notice on last Friday, and started the coin drive from yesterday January 31st, 2017. My job is to collect the jars from the main building after school, and count the money inside the jar. By Tuesday today, we raised 16036 yen in total. We are going to continue until Friday, and we are hoping to have raised 30000 by then.
The link to the google spreadsheet
Neurotransmitter: Chemical that allows the transmission of impulses
Long-term potentiation (LTP): Long-lasting strengthening of synapses between nerve cells, used in explaining long-tern memory.
Cellular mechanism: An abstraction of electrophysiological mechanism present in cell
Cognitive Loss: Problems involving memory, language, thinking, and judgement
Consolidate: Make physically stronger or solid.
Neurons communicate through synaptic connections by neurotransmitter. The persistent strengthening of these connections are called long-term potentiation, which is one of the most recognised cellular mechanism to explain memory. The brain is like a muscle, so you can use it or lose it. Many people think that the reason for cognitive loss is the decrease of neurons talking to each other. Griffith says that there is more debate and more research that needs to be done to comprehend how our brain generate, consolidate, and retrieve memory.
The expedition in Niigata turned out to be harder and adventurous than expected. This made me learn more about self-reliance and collaboration. When we hiked, we were in groups of around ten people, and in our group, each of us had a specific role. There was the navigator, pace maker, rear manager, time keeper, and so on. I was in charge of the first aid kit. I honestly didn’t think that there would be much need of the first aid kit, but it came really handy, because some people needed band-aid, scissors, tape, and medicine. It made me feel the responsibility to keep organised and make sure I don’t leave it somewhere. This experience was very good for me, since I could get away from electronics. They sky was clear, and there were lots of cute frogs at the building we stayed. When we were hiking, I found out that the spider web was very transparent, and it looked beautiful. The scenery from the top was amazing, too. I felt that I was able to get in touch with nature, and this was a rare experience. The most difficult thing (and the thing that I had to take risk) was going downhill when I was hiking. It was very slippery (for me) and it took me a long time to get down. I felt a bit down, because the person in front of me was so good at going downhill, but it made me feel better when the person in the back asked me if I was okay when I rolled down.
Before going to this expedition, I didn’t know a lot about hiking, because I have never done one, so I was worried if I could manage myself well and put everything that I need in my bag. I was worried that I could do something wrong. However, during the hike, I learned to put up a tent, and I brought pretty much all the things I needed, although I could have brought an extra sneaker when I slipped both of my feet in the mud lake… Although it wasn’t perfect, I felt that I improved a lot on the skill of self-management ad reliance.
I developed two specific skills that I learned during the hike — hiking and cooking. There were many “firsts” for me during this expedition. It was my first time putting up a tent, the first time doing a lot of cooking (and with lots of people outside, on top of that), the first time camping outside, and the first time needing so much responsibility for myself. For the cooking, I mainly cut vegetables, meat, and bread. I also helped when it wasn’t mandatory, like the morning when I got up early. Before this expedition, I couldn’t really imagine what hiking was like, but now I learned that it is very hard; it made me feel appreciative about the social and economic infrastructure, electricity, trash cans, and so on.There were lots of difficulty and I felt stressed sometimes, but it was also very enjoyable.
Nature means that we behave in a way by our instinct and genes. Blinking and taking your hands away from something hot could be some examples. Eating food and sleeping, too. Nurture is when we behave someway because we were taught that way, and it has become the habit. For example, wearing clothes and brushing your teeth — if a baby was left in a desert with no humankind, they wouldn’t learn to wear clothes and brush their teeth. These are the obvious examples. However, there are times when our behaviours can be both nature and nurture.
When thinking about what toys girls would choose to play with and the toys boys would choose to play with will be different for most of the people. Girls have the image of playing with dolls and houses; the cute toys. On the other hand, boys have the image of playing with vehicles and dinosaur toys; something that are more “boyish”. This could seem like a genetic thing, our natural instinct; however, it isn’t. Based on Liz Bonnin, who takes a test on adults with babies to take care of with all the toys in Cambridge, the adults chose the toys that were girl toys for “girls”, and boy toys for “boys”, not knowing that the genders were swapped. When the “girl” (who is a boy) was given a girl’s toy, he refused it. However, the adult kept on forcing the baby the girl’s toy. Based on this study, adults would choose different toys for different genders. Therefore, girl babies wanting girl toys and boy babies wanting boy toys isn’t a completely natural thing; it is also very nurture.
Things like this, including gender stereotype can have both nature and nurture parts to it.
In Drama, we have been learning about physical comedy and what kind of things we need to know to create a comedy. Comedy has a huge background history, and it started a long time ago. The development of comedy is very interesting.
1. Ancient Greek Comedy
Ancient Greek comedy was a popular form of theatre in Greece from 6th century BCE. The most famous playwrights of this genre was Aristophanes and Menander Athenian comedy is divided in three periods: Old Comedy, Middle Comedy, and New comedy. Old comedy exist today in form of eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes. He had weak plots, but there were two points in his plays. The first one was humor, which focused on sexual and scatalogical (obscene literature that is concerned with excretions) humor. The second point was personal and political. Few of his plays mocked politicians and intellectual people of that time. Because he laced his scene with humor, the comedies came across fun and light. New comedy is primarily known from papyrus fragments of Menander. It focused more on the plot of the play, and there were often employed recurring stock characters, such as cooks, soldiers, and slaves. There were less personal attacks, and the subjects became concentrated on fictional everyday people, and their relations with people. Middle Comedy is the time between Aristophanes’ death and the first play of Menander. It is largely lost, and preserved only in short fragments. It didn’t use sexual humor too much, and there were less attacks on people. It became more fictional. Whilst keeping the comic touch, Ancient Greek Comedy indirectly showed the insight of Greek society, such as their political institutions, religion practices, and educations. Ancient Greek Comedy and Tragedy formed together as the foundation which all theatre art is based on.
2. Medieval Comedy
After the fall of Rome, it was a period called the dark ages. There was political turmoil, and there weren’t reliable political structures. The church was the only stable “government”. The theatre was dark, but the Church couldn’t completely wipe out comedy elements from people during festivals and spring harvests. Fortunately, comedy survived for the next Renaissance period.
3. Renaissance Comedy
From 1400 AD to 1600 AD, technologies was innovated, and there were beautiful arts. The period is called Renaissance Comedy, and renaissance means revival. One of the greatest playwrights during this period was William Shakespeare, and he wrote Romeo and Juliet, Much Ado About Nothing, and All’s Well that ends well. During this period, comedy didn’t necessarily mean as something that was very humorous, but it meant that it was a play that had a happy ending. There are ironies, and misunderstandings (such as one character being misunderstood for another) that made the comedy funny.
4. Melodramatic Comedy
Melodrama is the primary form of theatre in 19th century, and it was very popular by 1840. It is still played today through tv and movies. Melodramatic comedy is very exaggerated, and it used music to increase and signify the characters. The moral was simplified, so the good and evil were embodied in stock characters. The good and bad were clearly depicted. There were also many special effects like explosions. In the early 1800s, most were based on romantic, exotic, or supernatural things. In 1820s, it developed and people became more familiar with the settings and characters.
5. Circus Comedy
The main attribute of the circus comedy is clown. Clowns have the characteristics of playfulness, irrelevance, and the freedom of ‘not knowing’. Clowns existed from ancient greece, and it emerged as a professional comic actor in the late Middle Ages. Court jesters and fools were influences for travelling entertainer. The three types of clowns are the White-face, Auguste and Character. The White-face clown is the most-known classic clown. The white-face is the most intelligent, and has higher status, associated with circus. It is the oldest style of clowns that dates back to Greek theatre. Auguste clown is the least intelligent. They tend to be silly in skits, and their makeup is skin-tone base. They have very bright, oversized, and mismatched costumes. Apparently, they appeared at around 1860, who worked with White-face clown and always spoiled tricks. The Hobo or Tramp clown is the most popular character clown, although the character clown can be a police office, a baby, a woman, and so on. The Hobo usually has tattered clothes and hat, make-up that suggests he is unshaven and a red nose. The Hobo knows that everything will turn out alright so he is not unhappy about his situation.
6. Cinematic Comedy
Cinematic comedy can be considered as one of the oldest film genre. It started with silent films, and it used much more visual action and physical humor than sound. Therefore, slapsticks were used often, which poked fun at physical mishap, like acrobatic stunts, wild chase scenes, and pratfalls. The famous silent era clowns were Roscoe “fatty” Arbuckle, Charlie Chaplin, and Buster Keaton. Buster Keaton was one of the great silent clowns, known for his acrobatic visual gags, physical action, and his unsmiling stoned-face expression.
The history of comedy is very deep, and it would be interesting to look closely at each of them in more detail.
“Ancient Greek Comedy: Definition & Plays.” Study.com. Study.com, n.d. Web. 03 June 2016.
“Ancient Greek Comedy: Definition & Plays.” Study.com. Study.com, n.d. Web. 03 June 2016.
“Ancient Greek Comedy.” New World Encyclopedia. MediaWiki, 19 Mar. 2016. Web. 3 June 2016.
Cartwright, Mark. “Ancient Greek Comedy.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited, 25 Mar. 2013. Web. 03 June 2016.
“Comedy Films.” The Greatest Films. American Movie Classics Company LLC, n.d. Web. 03 June 2016.
“Drama of the Middle Ages.” Theatre Database. 2002 TheatreData, n.d. Web. 03 June 2016.
“History of Clowning.” Clown Doctors. The Humour Foundation, n.d. Web. 3 June 2016.
“Medieval Theatre.” Northern Virginia Community College. N.p., 16 Nov. 2007. Web. 03 June 2016.
“19th Century Melodrama.” Northern Virginia Community College. N.p., 03 Nov. 2004. Web. 03 June 2016.
Riley. “Shakespearean Comedy.” The World of the Renaissance. 2016 Tangient LLC, 8 May 2012. Web. 03 June 2016.
How does perspective change our understanding of the world?
By being opened to different perspectives, we are likely to understand the “reality” better. There is no need to agree with all of the perspectives, but by putting myself in their shoes, I can truly understand why some people would think that, and my perspective will be a better one, after thinking about what others could think. Perspectives usually make ourselves look better, because a person will probably care about himself more than the others. By learning about the different perspective, I will come to understand that I won’t be right all the time, and every perspectives should be valued.
At the start when I answered the unit question, I thought that there are both good points and bad points to something. This still doesn’t change but right now, my thought on this question became more complex and nuanced.
- «Why does Magali want to buy something new?» It’s Sophie’s birthday tomorrow, and she wants to buy something attractive to wear for tomorrow.
- «What is Hélène going to wear? Why?» She is going to wear a pair of jeans and t-shirt, because it is simple and easy to move around.
- «What type of clothing is Magali looking for?» She is looking for clothes to go to a party
- «What outfit does Magali like?» She likes clothes that are original, but not too expensive.
Qui parle? C’est Magali, Hélène ou la vendeuse?
- «J’aimerais quelque chose d’original et pas trop cher.» Magali
- «Je peux vous aider?» La vendeuse
- «Moi, j’aime bien être en jean et en tee-shirt. C’est simple et agréable à porter.» Hélène
- «Qu’est-ce que vous faites comme taille?» La vendeuse
- «Chacun ses goûts.» Hélène
- «Est-ce que vous l’avez en vert?» Magali
- «C’est tout à fait votre style.» La vendeuse
- «Ce n’est pas tellement mon style.» Magali
Qu’est-ce que Magali dit de ces vêtements?
- «le jean et le tee-shirt d’Hélène» “Pourquoi est-ce que tu ne trouves pas quelque chose d’original? De mignon?”
- «la première jupe que la vendeuse propose.» “Bof. C’est pas tellement mon style.”
- «la jupe verte en 38» “Oui, c’est pas mal, mais elle est un peu large.”
Qu’est-ce que Magali répond à la vendeuse?
- «Qu’est-ce que vous faites comme taille?» b. Je fais du 38.
- «Comment la trouvez-vous?» d. Bof. Ce n’est pas tellement mon style.
- «Je peux vous aider?» c. Je cherche quelque chose pour aller à une fête.
- «Ah, très chic! C’est tout à fait votre style.» a. Vous trouvez? Mais, je ne sais pas quoi mettre avec.
According to Chacun ses goûts, how would you …
- «express indecision?» Je ne sais pas quoi mettre.
- «express satisfaction with your clothes?» C’est simple et agréable à porter.
- «tell a salesperson what you want?» J’aimerais quelque chose de…
- «tell what size you wear?» Je fais du…
- «express dissatisfaction with clothes?» C’est pas tellement mon style.
- «ask for a certain color or size?» Est-ce que vous l’avez en… ?
Est-ce que tu préfères le style de Magali ou d’Hélène? Qu’est-ce que tu aimes comme vêtements?
Je préfère le style de Hélène. Je préfère les vêtements simples.