Duke of Edinburgh Service: Coin Drive for Cambodia

Since the meeting last Monday, our Grade 9 Group in Cambodia Service club decided to do a coin drive through middle school, high school, and teachers to raise money.

The grade with the least money would win, meaning that students had to put money in other grades’ jar to make them lose.

We posted the notice on last Friday, and started the coin drive from yesterday January 31st, 2017. My job is to collect the jars from the main building after school, and count the money inside the jar. By Tuesday today, we raised 16036 yen in total. We are going to continue until Friday, and we are hoping to have raised 30000 by then.

The link to the google spreadsheet

I&S- How Does Memory Work?

Neurotransmitter: Chemical that allows the transmission of impulses
Long-term potentiation (LTP): Long-lasting strengthening of synapses between nerve cells, used in explaining long-tern memory.
Cellular mechanism: An abstraction of electrophysiological mechanism present in cell
Cognitive Loss: Problems involving memory, language, thinking, and judgement
Consolidate: Make physically stronger or solid.

Neurons communicate through synaptic connections by neurotransmitter. The persistent strengthening of these connections are called long-term potentiation, which is one of the most recognised cellular mechanism to explain memory. The brain is like a muscle, so you can use it or lose it. Many people think that the reason for cognitive loss is the decrease of neurons talking to each other. Griffith says that there is more debate and more research that needs to be done to comprehend how our brain generate, consolidate, and retrieve memory.

Expedition Reflection

The expedition in Niigata turned out to be harder and adventurous than expected. This made me learn more about self-reliance and collaboration. When we hiked, we were in groups of around ten people, and in our group, each of us had a specific role. There was the navigator, pace maker, rear manager, time keeper, and so on. I was in charge of the first aid kit. I honestly didn’t think that there would be much need of the first aid kit, but it came really handy, because some people needed band-aid, scissors, tape, and medicine. It made me feel the responsibility to keep organised and make sure I don’t leave it somewhere. This experience was very good for me, since I could get away from electronics. They sky was clear, and there were lots of cute frogs at the building we stayed. When we were hiking, I found out that the spider web was very transparent, and it looked beautiful. The scenery from the top was amazing, too. I felt that I was able to get in touch with nature, and this was a rare experience. The most difficult thing (and the thing that I had to take risk) was going downhill when I was hiking. It was very slippery (for me) and it took me a long time to get down. I felt a bit down, because the person in front of me was so good at going downhill, but it made me feel better when the person in the back asked me if I was okay when I rolled down.

niigata-expedition-2016-gopro-1-1050572-xlniigata-expedition-2016-gopro-1-1060022-xlniigata-expedition-2016-6502-xl

Before going to this expedition, I didn’t know a lot about hiking, because I have never done one, so I was worried if I could manage myself well and put everything that I need in my bag. I was worried that I could do something wrong. However, during the hike, I learned to put up a tent, and I brought pretty much all the things I needed, although I could have brought an extra sneaker when I slipped both of my feet in the mud lake… Although it wasn’t perfect, I felt that I improved a lot on the skill of self-management ad reliance.

I developed two specific skills that I learned during the hike — hiking and cooking. There were many “firsts” for me during this expedition. It was my first time putting up a tent, the first time doing a lot of cooking (and with lots of people outside, on top of that), the first time camping outside, and the first time needing so much responsibility for myself. For the cooking, I mainly cut vegetables, meat, and bread. I also helped when it wasn’t mandatory, like the morning when I got up early. Before this expedition, I couldn’t really imagine what hiking was like, but now I learned that it is very hard; it made me feel appreciative about the social and economic infrastructure, electricity, trash cans, and so on.niigata-expedition-2016-6353-xlniigata-expedition-2016-6266-xlThere were lots of difficulty and I felt stressed sometimes, but it was also very enjoyable.

Nature vs Nurture

Nature means that we behave in a way by our instinct and genes. Blinking and taking your hands away from something hot could be some examples. Eating food and sleeping, too. Nurture is when we behave someway because we were taught that way, and it has become the habit. For example, wearing clothes and brushing your teeth — if a baby was left in a desert with no humankind, they wouldn’t learn to wear clothes and brush their teeth. These are the obvious examples. However, there are times when our behaviours can be both nature and nurture.

When thinking about what toys girls would choose to play with and the toys boys would choose to play with will be different for most of the people. Girls have the image of playing with dolls and houses; the cute toys. On the other hand, boys have the image of playing with vehicles and dinosaur toys; something that are more “boyish”. This could seem like a genetic thing, our natural instinct; however, it isn’t. Based on Liz Bonnin, who takes a test on adults with babies to take care of with all the toys in Cambridge, the adults chose the toys that were girl toys for “girls”, and boy toys for “boys”, not knowing that the genders were swapped. When the “girl” (who is a boy) was given a girl’s toy, he refused it. However, the adult kept on forcing the baby the girl’s toy. Based on this study, adults would choose different toys for different genders. Therefore, girl babies wanting girl toys and boy babies wanting boy toys isn’t a completely natural thing; it is also very nurture.

Things like this, including gender stereotype can have both nature and nurture parts to it.

Drama Comedy Timeline

In Drama, we have been learning about physical comedy and what kind of things we need to know to create a comedy. Comedy has a huge background history, and it started a long time ago. The development of comedy is very interesting.
1. Ancient Greek Comedy
Ancient Greek comedy was a popular form of theatre in Greece from 6th century BCE. The most famous playwrights of this genre was Aristophanes and Menander Athenian comedy is divided in three periods: Old Comedy, Middle Comedy, and New comedy. Old comedy exist today in form of eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes. He had weak plots, but there were two points in his plays. The first one was humor, which focused on sexual and scatalogical (obscene literature that is concerned with excretions) humor. The second point was personal and political. Few of his plays mocked politicians and intellectual people of that time. Because he laced his scene with humor, the comedies came across fun and light. New comedy is primarily known from papyrus fragments of Menander. It focused more on the plot of the play, and there were often employed recurring stock characters, such as cooks, soldiers, and slaves. There were less personal attacks, and the subjects became concentrated on fictional everyday people, and their relations with people. Middle Comedy is the time between Aristophanes’ death and the first play of Menander. It is largely lost, and preserved only in short fragments. It didn’t use sexual humor too much, and there were less attacks on people. It became more fictional. Whilst keeping the comic touch, Ancient Greek Comedy indirectly showed the insight of Greek society, such as their political institutions, religion practices, and educations. Ancient Greek Comedy and Tragedy formed together as the foundation which all theatre art is based on.
2. Medieval Comedy
After the fall of Rome, it was a period called the dark ages. There was political turmoil, and there weren’t reliable political structures. The church was the only stable “government”. The theatre was dark, but the Church couldn’t completely wipe out comedy elements from people during festivals and spring harvests. Fortunately, comedy survived for the next Renaissance period.
3. Renaissance Comedy
From 1400 AD to 1600 AD, technologies was innovated, and there were beautiful arts. The period is called Renaissance Comedy, and renaissance means revival. One of the greatest playwrights during this period was William Shakespeare, and he wrote Romeo and Juliet, Much Ado About Nothing, and All’s Well that ends well. During this period, comedy didn’t necessarily mean as something that was very humorous, but it meant that it was a play that had a happy ending. There are ironies, and misunderstandings (such as one character being misunderstood for another) that made the comedy funny.
4. Melodramatic Comedy
Melodrama is the primary form of theatre in 19th century, and it was very popular by 1840. It is still played today through tv and movies. Melodramatic comedy is very exaggerated, and it used music to increase and signify the characters. The moral was simplified, so the good and evil were embodied in stock characters. The good and bad were clearly depicted. There were also many special effects like explosions. In the early 1800s, most were based on romantic, exotic, or supernatural things. In 1820s, it developed and people became more familiar with the settings and characters.
5. Circus Comedy
The main attribute of the circus comedy is clown. Clowns have the characteristics of playfulness, irrelevance, and the freedom of ‘not knowing’. Clowns existed from ancient greece, and it emerged as a professional comic actor in the late Middle Ages. Court jesters and fools were influences for travelling entertainer. The three types of clowns are the White-face, Auguste and Character. The White-face clown is the most-known classic clown. The white-face is the most intelligent, and has higher status, associated with circus. It is the oldest style of clowns that dates back to Greek theatre. Auguste clown is the least intelligent. They tend to be silly in skits, and their makeup is skin-tone base. They have very bright, oversized, and mismatched costumes. Apparently, they appeared at around 1860, who worked with White-face clown and always spoiled tricks. The Hobo or Tramp clown is the most popular character clown, although the character clown can be a police office, a baby, a woman, and so on. The Hobo usually has tattered clothes and hat, make-up that suggests he is unshaven and a red nose. The Hobo knows that everything will turn out alright so he is not unhappy about his situation.
6. Cinematic Comedy
Cinematic comedy can be considered as one of the oldest film genre. It started with silent films, and it used much more visual action and physical humor than sound. Therefore, slapsticks were used often, which poked fun at physical mishap, like acrobatic stunts, wild chase scenes, and pratfalls. The famous silent era clowns were Roscoe “fatty” Arbuckle, Charlie Chaplin, and Buster Keaton. Buster Keaton was one of the great silent clowns, known for his acrobatic visual gags, physical action, and his unsmiling stoned-face expression.
The history of comedy is very deep, and it would be interesting to look closely at each of them in more detail.

Works Cited
“Ancient Greek Comedy: Definition & Plays.” Study.com. Study.com, n.d. Web. 03 June 2016.
“Ancient Greek Comedy: Definition & Plays.” Study.com. Study.com, n.d. Web. 03 June 2016.
“Ancient Greek Comedy.” New World Encyclopedia. MediaWiki, 19 Mar. 2016. Web. 3 June 2016.
Cartwright, Mark. “Ancient Greek Comedy.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited, 25 Mar. 2013. Web. 03 June 2016.
“Comedy Films.” The Greatest Films. American Movie Classics Company LLC, n.d. Web. 03 June 2016.
“Drama of the Middle Ages.” Theatre Database. 2002 TheatreData, n.d. Web. 03 June 2016.
“History of Clowning.” Clown Doctors. The Humour Foundation, n.d. Web. 3 June 2016.
“Medieval Theatre.” Northern Virginia Community College. N.p., 16 Nov. 2007. Web. 03 June 2016.
“19th Century Melodrama.” Northern Virginia Community College. N.p., 03 Nov. 2004. Web. 03 June 2016.
Riley. “Shakespearean Comedy.” The World of the Renaissance. 2016 Tangient LLC, 8 May 2012. Web. 03 June 2016.

Prejudice and Perspective: Answering the unit question

How does perspective change our understanding of the world?

By being opened to different perspectives, we are likely to understand the “reality” better. There is no need to agree with all of the perspectives, but by putting myself in their shoes, I can truly understand why some people would think that, and my perspective will be a better one, after thinking about what others could think. Perspectives usually make ourselves look better, because a person will probably care about himself more than the others. By learning about the different perspective, I will come to understand that I won’t be right all the time, and every perspectives should be valued.
At the start when I answered the unit question, I thought that there are both good points and bad points to something. This still doesn’t change but right now, my thought on this question became more complex and nuanced.

Chapitre 10: Mise en Train

Activity 1

  1. «Why does Magali want to buy something new?»     It’s Sophie’s birthday tomorrow, and she wants to buy something attractive to wear for tomorrow.
  2. «What is Hélène going to wear? Why?»          She is going to wear a pair of jeans and t-shirt, because it is simple and easy to move around.
  3. «What type of clothing is Magali looking for?»          She is looking for clothes to go to a party
  4. «What outfit does Magali like?»          She likes clothes that are original, but not too expensive.

Activity 2

Qui parle? C’est Magali, Hélène ou la vendeuse?

  1. «J’aimerais quelque chose d’original et pas trop cher.»        Magali  
  2. «Je peux vous aider?»          La vendeuse
  3. «Moi, j’aime bien être en jean et en tee-shirt. C’est simple et agréable à porter.»          Hélène
  4. «Qu’est-ce que vous faites comme taille?»          La vendeuse
  5. «Chacun ses goûts.»          Hélène
  6. «Est-ce que vous l’avez en vert?»          Magali
  7. «C’est tout à fait votre style.»          La vendeuse
  8. «Ce n’est pas tellement mon style.»          Magali

Activity 3

Qu’est-ce que Magali dit de ces vêtements? 

  1. «le jean et le tee-shirt d’Hélène»         “Pourquoi est-ce que tu ne trouves pas quelque chose d’original? De mignon?”
  2. «la première jupe que la vendeuse propose.»          “Bof. C’est pas tellement mon style.”
  3. «la jupe verte en 38»          “Oui, c’est pas mal, mais elle est un peu large.”

Activity 4

Qu’est-ce que Magali répond à la vendeuse? 

  1. «Qu’est-ce que vous faites comme taille?»          b. Je fais du 38.
  2. «Comment la trouvez-vous?»          d. Bof. Ce n’est pas tellement mon style.
  3. «Je peux vous aider?»          c. Je cherche quelque chose pour aller à une fête.
  4. «Ah, très chic! C’est tout à fait votre style.»          a. Vous trouvez? Mais, je ne sais pas quoi mettre avec.

Activity 5

According to Chacun ses goûts, how would you … 

  1. «express indecision?»          Je ne sais pas quoi mettre.
  2. «express satisfaction with your clothes?»          C’est simple et agréable à porter.
  3. «tell a salesperson what you want?»          J’aimerais quelque chose de…
  4. «tell what size you wear?»          Je fais du…
  5. «express dissatisfaction with clothes?»          C’est pas tellement mon style.
  6. «ask for a certain color or size?»          Est-ce que vous l’avez en… ?

Activity 6

Est-ce que tu préfères le style de Magali ou d’Hélène? Qu’est-ce que tu aimes comme vêtements?

Je préfère le style de Hélène. Je préfère les vêtements simples.

Chapitre 9: Mise en train

Activity 1

  1. There was nothing special about Hélène’s weekend. She did her homework, watched the television, and read.
  2. Yes , because when she went with Florent, she met a boy called Ahmed.
  3. Yes, because she talked a lot of good things about him, and she sounded happy that they both had same interest.
  4. Because her father also wants to use the phone.

Activity 2:

  1. Magali
  2. Hélène
  3. Hélène
  4. Magali
  5. Hélène
  6. Hélène

Activity 3:

4, 1, 2, 3

Activity 4:

  • le père de Magali
  • Magali
  • Ahmed
  • Hélène
  • Magali

Activity 5:

  1. Allô
  2. C’est… à l’appareil.
  3. Tu as passed un bon week-end?
  4. Qu’est-ce que tu as fait? 
  5. Attends une seconde. 
  6. Qu’est-ce qui s’est passé?

Activity 6:

It is probably something involved with Ahmed, because she seemed really excited about him. She probably had fun looking around at things with them.

Les résultats de ma recherche sur la Côte d’Ivoire

Ivory Coast exports cocoa, fruits, nuts, coffee, and spices. An Ivorian snack, called Alloco uses fried plantain, and is usually served together with chilli peppers and onions. Plantain usually grows in tropical area, including West Africa, which includes Ivory Coast. The plantain that they use is probably from Ivory Coast. Another food is called fufu, and this is a staple food in Africa. This is made from mashed cassava, and is usually served with soup and meat. This is probably what rice like it to us. Another food is called Attieké, and this is grated cassava, sometimes served with barbecued meat or fish.

Attieke poisson:  (Recipe)

Ingredients:

Du poisson

1 boule d’attieké

1 petit oignon

2 tomates

1 piment vert

huile pour la friture

sel et poivre

du vinaigre

1 grosse poignée de farine et assaisonnement

Recipe:

1. Emietter grossierment l’attieke ajouter 1/4 tasse d’eau, sel et mettre dans un panier vapeur, afin de le réhydrater.

2. Ilacher le piment, l’oignons, les tomates ajouter de vinaigre, le cube et du sel.

3. Saler, assaisoner, fariner le poisson et le faire frire, cinq minutes sur chaque face, dans de l’huile bien chaude. Servir chaud.

Factual question: “Is the Ivorian diet a healthy one?”

Yes, I think that it is, because lots of the food are made from vegetables and natural products. When I was doing on searches about different recipes, there were many that used vegetables. They also know what they put in their food. Food like fufu are made by hand, so that the consumers know exactly what they are eating. Therefore, Ivorian diet is a healthy one.

Conceptual question: “Is our diet influenced by our culture?

Yes, and I think that one of them is religion. Some religions restrict specific kinds of meat, as well as alcohol. Some people are vegetarian, too. In Japan, I think that there are more fast foods and junk foods when they started importing an exporting more often with other countries. In Okinawa, I hear that people there live long, since they have less import and export, and have healthy diet.

Debate question: To what extent is this statement true: “ Tell me what you eat and I will tell you who you are”.

This isn’t true for some times, since people might not look as what they eat. Of course, if comparing children in poverty, and children not it poverty, it will probably be an obvious difference, but if both eats the same amount, but different thing, it will be harder to tell, unless from nationalities. It is true that the more you eat every day, you will start to gain more weight. Therefore, I think that the statement is somewhat true, but it will be hard to tell for something specific.

French: Chapter 8 Mise en Train

Activity 1:

1. What time of day is it?

It is in the morning.

2. What does Mme Diomandė want Djeneba to do? Why?

She wants her to go shopping, because she is going to make a futu and sauce arachide for lunch.

3. What are some of the things Djenba buys?

She needs to buy some vegetables, rice, fish, bread, and tomato paste.

4. What happens at the end of the story?

Someone is at the door.

5. What did she forget?

She forgot to tell Mme Diomandé that she invited a person for lunch.

Activity 2:

1. Faux

2. Vrai

3. Faux

4. Faux

5. Faux

Activity 3:

1. b

2. d

3. e

4. a

5. c

Activity 4:

1. Aminata

2. Mme Diomandė

3. Djenba

4. Djenba

5. Mme Diomandė

Activity 5:

1. She says, “Encore …(the food)…, (Name)

e.g. Encore du pain, Animata?

2. Non, merci. Je n’ai plus faim.

3. Tu me fais le marchė?

4. Il me faut….                Tu me rapportes aussi…..                   Et prends…..

5. Bon, d’accord./ Volontiers!

Activity 6:

Mon mėre faire les courses. Elle faire les courses dans le grocery.

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