English Unit 3 Reflection: Perspective and Prejudice

At the start of the unit, I wrote that perspective change our understanding of the world because not all perspective are correct and that we might get a wrong idea of things by looking at it from a wrong perspective. At that time, I did not know much about stereotypes or ‘us’ vs ‘them’ mentality and therefore I had a vague idea of what perspective really was. However, now that I learned about this unit, I know that in perspective, there are things like stereotypes involved. In the Outsiders, I found out that like the Socs and the Greasers, even though they had a stereotypical idea of each other, people can overcome these stereotypes to change their understanding of the world around them. Now I think that perspectives are a strong idea in which one’s understanding of the world changes. The-outsiders-19

the-outsiders-1983-the-greasers

Does Everyone See “History” In the Same Way?

I believe that everyone sees “history” in different ways. In “history”, there is more than one person involved in it and even if one was not directly involved, people are able to learn and have an opinion about it via ways such as mass media. An example of a history that was not seen the same way by everybody is the Bubble. The Bubble is a period of time in Japan from late 1980s to early 1990s. From late 1980s to 1990, the stock prices and the real estate inflated due to many reasons such as the increase in the price of land, the increase in the consumption rate, and Bank of Japan’s loose monetary policy. According to Bloomberg, in Ginza, a popular place in Tokyo, the price for 3㎡ of land was 120,000,000 Japanese Yen at that time. However in 1990, the Bubble burst. Stock price and the real estate dropped. People started losing jobs. Companies went bankrupt. Due to this the decade after the Bubble burst is called the “Lost Decade”. These emotions, languages and experiences from the primary and the secondary research were different from my father’s story and similar to my mother’s.

 

When I interviewed my father, who lived through Bubble, there were many differences with the research I have done. During the growth of economic Bubble, he was in USA, working in a Japanese embassy. Since he was in USA, he was not really affected by it as much, but he knew about it. Moreover, his job is a public civil servant so his job was not affected as much as private businesses with the rise and fall of stock price. Some of his family were living in Japan at that time, but none of them was affected greatly by it. When he came back to Japan, he still was not affected much by it, other than that it was harder to catch taxis at night and the price of taxis were higher in the night. He said that this was because so many people were going to parties in the night and people used taxis instead of walking because they had money. Other than that he did not find Bubble to be bad or good, but just normal. After the Bubble burst, he said that “the way he saw the Japanese government did not change”. He just did not expect high growth rate anymore and he says that Japan is still in stagnation. As you can see, sometimes, his experience and the way he saw the Bubble was different from information collected from primary and secondary source. It is similar to the research on how he said taxi was hard to catch and the price went up because in both research and interview, it shows that people were going to parties at night. However for other points, it was different. The emotion and the language in the articles were more negative such as the “Lost Decade”. However my father had more neutral emotion and language because he did not find any pros or cons in the Bubble. His experience is different too. In the websites that I have looked at, the experience of the high growth rate were written as “In the late 1980s, on the heels of a three-decade long “Economic Miracle,” Japan experienced its infamous “bubble economy” in which stock and real estate prices soared to stratospheric heights driven by a speculative mania.” (Jesse Colombo) and the experience are very positive about the Bubble and very negative about the Bubble burst. However my father’s experience was more neutral, like his emotion and language. This shows that people does not see “history” the same way and the way they see it might depend on where they were, their job and their experience.

 

Some people do see “history” in the same way. An example is the interview I have done with my mother. During Bubble, she was in university and therefore the Bubble affected her choice of jobs. She said that students older than her in her university got many offers from private businesses and she said that “it was a very easy time to get jobs” for them. However as when she was in the last year of university, the Bubble burst. People started losing jobs and the offers for jobs did not come as much to university students. Therefore she chose to work as public civil servant because then, the work will not be affected by the stock price or the real estate. She said that many people chose the same too. During Bubble, she said that she saw many TV programs about how the real estate increased and how people were going to parties. After the Bubble burst, she went to Malaysia because of her work. There she was told by foreigners that Japan was an amazing country because they saw how Japan grew and therefore, she felt as if Japan had high expectations. Even after the burst, she said that foreigners believed that Japan would come back again. Her story is much closer to the one to the research compared to my father’s. The emotion and language were positive during Bubble, like the primary and secondary sources, because she used languages like “many job offers”, “salary” and “easy time to get jobs”. Her experience of choosing jobs in university and people going to parties are also similar to the one of primary and secondary sources. The way she talked about the Bubble burst was similar too. The emotions and languages were negative such as “loss of job offers” and “drop of stock price”. This shows that some people do see “history” in the same way.

 

From this, I can see that some people do see “history” the same way and some people do not. An example of people not seeing it the same way is my father and the websites. The emotion, language and experiences were different. An example of seeing it similarly is my mother and the websites. Therefore it is important to understand that people do see “history” differently. Some people might say something opposite to someone else and that is their opinion. People reading the history must read from both sides to fully understand history. This is because people living at that time will care about it. If one side says something bad about the other, the reader might get the idea that the other was bad and misunderstand it. This is why people must understand that people do have different opinions and therefore there is no correct “history”.

 

Bibliography:

桑子, かつ代, and Russell Ward. “銀座地価が過去最高に、ブランドや免税店が続々-坪2億円取引も.” Bloomberg. Bloomberg, 23    Mar. 2016. Web. 25 May 2016. <https://www.bloomberg.co.jp/news/articles/2016-03-22/O460BS6JTSF201>.

Colombo, Jesse. “Japan’s Bubble Economy of the 1980s.” RSS. The Bubble Bubble, 4 June 2012. Web. 27 Apr. 2016.            <http://www.thebubblebubble.com/japan-bubble/>.

“Japan.” Britannica School. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2016. Web. 26 Apr. 2016.  <http://school.eb.com/levels/high/article/106451#23220.toc>.

History of Comedy

Ancient Comics: (Around 800 BCE – 753 BCE)

Ancient Comedy

Comedy is said to have originated from rituals, such as Phallic processions, performed for the Greek God of vegetation, Dionysus.These comedies were called the “Old Comedy” and according to Evolution of Comedy, it was a mix of “farce, fantasy, satire, and parody, the series ending in a lyrical celebration of unity”. After the “Old Comedy”, “New Comedy” was born and the “New Comedy” was more about romance and less sarcastic or critical. However since comedy was for making people laugh, it was not taken seriously, so the origin of comedy is not defined. In Ancient Greek, Aristotle thought “that it first took shape in Megaris and Sicyon, whose people were noted for their coarse humor and sense of the ludicrous” (Origin of Comedy). Aristotle believed that comedy was a positive impact on the society but there were others like Plato who thought it was a negative impact and preferred tragedy over comedy. Comedy was very popular among Athenians and in 425 BCE, Aristophanes wrote many comedies.When the Romans took over Greece, a Roman version of comedy was born. In Roman comedy, everything was set in Rome, not Athens, and Roman dramatists adapted it so that it fits the Roman culture. It was not only Greeks and Romans who had comedy. Ancient Egyptians has comedy as well, though it was different from Greek and Roman comedy. Egyptian comedy was more religious and royal. As you can see there was comedy from old time, even though it was not taken seriously at the time.

Medieval Comics: (476 AD – 16th Century)

Medieval Court Jester

In Medieval times, churches tried to keep the comedy to minimum, but it was still performed in festivals and ceremonies and survived for the next period, Renaissance. In Medieval times, by the 14th century, more clowns and Court Jesters started to appear, as the records start getting better. Court Jesters were people who provided amusement to households and Royal families. In Egypt, there were people whose job was to entertain the Royal family, who imitated Egyptian Gods. These people were start of clowns. In Rome, there were many types of clowns. Sannio, a clown who did not wear any masks and who made people laugh with their funny body and face. Stupidus, who made people laugh with mimicking and was famous for slapsticks. Scurra was good at jesting while Moriones, Stulti and Fatui were funny for their retardedness. As you can see, these Court Jester and clowns were main parts of Medieval comedy.

Renaissance Comics: (14th Century – 17th Century)
In Renaissance times, a new type of comedy, called realistic comedy, was born. It was a mix of Latin comedy and comedy developed by John Heywood. This comedy was mainly expressed in plays by Ben Johnson and William Shakespeare. Shakespeare was very good at writing tragicomedy plays as well as romance comedy plays. On the other hand Heywood wrote plays that were more classical. During this time, there was another type of comedy called Commedia dell Arte, which originated in Italy. This is a comedy with masked characters who improvise their dialogues. This later influenced France to the pantomime comedy. In 17th century, a classical comedy and Commedia dell Arte combined together to make a play called Molière. Renaissance was a period in which new types of comedy was born and when comedy started to get popular.

Commedia dell Arte

Melodramatic Comics: (18th Century – 19th Century)

A melodramatic drama is a drama in which the plot and the characters are exaggerated to appeal to emotions, using stereotypes. It was written in 18th to 19th century and was usually accompanied by music. It is also centred on the idea of good vs. evil. It was the most written theatre in 19th century and was very popular by 1840. In melodramatic comedy there were 6 characters called stock characters and they were the hero, the villain, the heroine, an aged parent, a sidekick and a servant. These characters were used in plots of murder and love. Melodrama is still present in the present day.

Circus Comics: (18th Century)

Circus is a performance of acrobatics, comedy, and equestrian, which has existed since 18th Century. The first ever circus to be performed was by Philip Astley in London. In circus, there are clowns, whose job is to entertain the audience and to make them laugh. There are three basic types of clowns in circus: the whiteface clown, the auguste and the character clown. Circus clowns perform gags. As more people went to and performed in circuses, more types of circus comedy and more types of clowns were born.

Cinematic Comics: (20th Century)
Cinematic comics are films that focuses on the humour part. These films are to amuse and entertain the audience and it is made funny by using exaggeration of real life characters. It started with silent films. Silent films are films without any words used, and therefore it is a comedy of physical action, such as slapsticks. An example of a silent film is “City Lights”. Famous comedians from this time are Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd. Charlie Chaplin is a comedian, silent actor and pantomimist. He is very famous. There are many classics from Charlie Chaplin such as “The Tramp”, “The Floorwalker” and “The Kid”. Buster Keaton was famous for his “stoneface” and acrobatic gags. His works include “The Butcher Boy” and “One Week”. Harold Lloyd was a popular silent clown who was called the “third genius” after Chaplin and Keaton. Some of his works are “Just Nuts” and “Safety Last”. After silent films, T.V comedy shows became popular. An example of that is Mr. Bean.

 

Citation:

Photos from CC Search

Chapitre 10: Mise en Train

Activity 1:

1. Why does Magali want to buy something new?

Because there is a birthday party that she is going and she does not know what to wear.

2. What is Hélène going to wear? Why?

Hélène is going to wear T-shirt and jeans because it is simple and comfortable to wear.

3. What type of clothing is Magali looking for?

She wants a clothing for a party and she wants something that is original but not too expensive.

4. What outfit does Magali like?

Magali likes the green shirt.

Activity 2:

  1. «J’aimerais quelque chose d’original et pas trop cher.» -> Magali
  2. «Je peux vous aider?» -> La vendeuse
  3. «Moi, j’aime bien être en jean et en tee-shirt. C’est simple et agréable à porter.»  -> Hélène
  4. «Qu’est-ce que vous faites comme taille?» -> La vendeuse
  5. «Chacun ses goûts.» -> Hélène
  6. «Est-ce que vous l’avez en vert?» -> Magali
  7. «C’est tout à fait votre style.» -> La vendeuse
  8. «Ce n’est pas tellement mon style.» -> Magali

Activity 3:

1. le jean et le tee-shirt d’Hélène

“Pourquoi est-ce que tu ne trouves pas quelque chose d’original? De mignon?”

2. la première jupe que la vendeuse propose.

“Bof. C’est pas tellement mon style.”

3. la jupe verte en 38

“Oui, c’est pas mal, mais elle est un peu large, non? Est-ce que vous l’avez en 36?”

Activity 4:

  1. Qu’est-ce que vous faites comme taille? -> b
  2. Comment la trouvez-vous? -> d
  3. Je peux vous aider? -> c
  4. Ah, très chic! C’est tout à fait votre style. -> a

Activity 5:

  1. express indecision? -> Je ne sais pas quoi mettre.
  2. express satisfaction with your clothes? -> C’est simple et agréable à porter.
  3. tell a salesperson what you want? -> J’aimerais quelque chose de…
  4. tell what size you wear? -> Je fais du…
  5. express dissatisfaction with clothes? -> C’est pas tellement mon style.
  6. ask for a certain color or size? -> Est-ce que vous l’avez en… ?

Activity 6:

Est-ce que tu préfères le style de Magali ou d’Hélène? Qu’est-ce que tu aimes comme vêtements?

Je préfères le style d’Hélène, parce que un jean et un tee-shirt est très agréable à porter. Pour un jean, j’aime bien le couleur bleu et pour un tee-shirt, je peux choisir le couleur aussi.

 

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