Does Everyone See “History” In the Same Way?

I believe that everyone sees “history” in different ways. In “history”, there is more than one person involved in it and even if one was not directly involved, people are able to learn and have an opinion about it via ways such as mass media. An example of a history that was not seen the same way by everybody is the Bubble. The Bubble is a period of time in Japan from late 1980s to early 1990s. From late 1980s to 1990, the stock prices and the real estate inflated due to many reasons such as the increase in the price of land, the increase in the consumption rate, and Bank of Japan’s loose monetary policy. According to Bloomberg, in Ginza, a popular place in Tokyo, the price for 3㎡ of land was 120,000,000 Japanese Yen at that time. However in 1990, the Bubble burst. Stock price and the real estate dropped. People started losing jobs. Companies went bankrupt. Due to this the decade after the Bubble burst is called the “Lost Decade”. These emotions, languages and experiences from the primary and the secondary research were different from my father’s story and similar to my mother’s.

 

When I interviewed my father, who lived through Bubble, there were many differences with the research I have done. During the growth of economic Bubble, he was in USA, working in a Japanese embassy. Since he was in USA, he was not really affected by it as much, but he knew about it. Moreover, his job is a public civil servant so his job was not affected as much as private businesses with the rise and fall of stock price. Some of his family were living in Japan at that time, but none of them was affected greatly by it. When he came back to Japan, he still was not affected much by it, other than that it was harder to catch taxis at night and the price of taxis were higher in the night. He said that this was because so many people were going to parties in the night and people used taxis instead of walking because they had money. Other than that he did not find Bubble to be bad or good, but just normal. After the Bubble burst, he said that “the way he saw the Japanese government did not change”. He just did not expect high growth rate anymore and he says that Japan is still in stagnation. As you can see, sometimes, his experience and the way he saw the Bubble was different from information collected from primary and secondary source. It is similar to the research on how he said taxi was hard to catch and the price went up because in both research and interview, it shows that people were going to parties at night. However for other points, it was different. The emotion and the language in the articles were more negative such as the “Lost Decade”. However my father had more neutral emotion and language because he did not find any pros or cons in the Bubble. His experience is different too. In the websites that I have looked at, the experience of the high growth rate were written as “In the late 1980s, on the heels of a three-decade long “Economic Miracle,” Japan experienced its infamous “bubble economy” in which stock and real estate prices soared to stratospheric heights driven by a speculative mania.” (Jesse Colombo) and the experience are very positive about the Bubble and very negative about the Bubble burst. However my father’s experience was more neutral, like his emotion and language. This shows that people does not see “history” the same way and the way they see it might depend on where they were, their job and their experience.

 

Some people do see “history” in the same way. An example is the interview I have done with my mother. During Bubble, she was in university and therefore the Bubble affected her choice of jobs. She said that students older than her in her university got many offers from private businesses and she said that “it was a very easy time to get jobs” for them. However as when she was in the last year of university, the Bubble burst. People started losing jobs and the offers for jobs did not come as much to university students. Therefore she chose to work as public civil servant because then, the work will not be affected by the stock price or the real estate. She said that many people chose the same too. During Bubble, she said that she saw many TV programs about how the real estate increased and how people were going to parties. After the Bubble burst, she went to Malaysia because of her work. There she was told by foreigners that Japan was an amazing country because they saw how Japan grew and therefore, she felt as if Japan had high expectations. Even after the burst, she said that foreigners believed that Japan would come back again. Her story is much closer to the one to the research compared to my father’s. The emotion and language were positive during Bubble, like the primary and secondary sources, because she used languages like “many job offers”, “salary” and “easy time to get jobs”. Her experience of choosing jobs in university and people going to parties are also similar to the one of primary and secondary sources. The way she talked about the Bubble burst was similar too. The emotions and languages were negative such as “loss of job offers” and “drop of stock price”. This shows that some people do see “history” in the same way.

 

From this, I can see that some people do see “history” the same way and some people do not. An example of people not seeing it the same way is my father and the websites. The emotion, language and experiences were different. An example of seeing it similarly is my mother and the websites. Therefore it is important to understand that people do see “history” differently. Some people might say something opposite to someone else and that is their opinion. People reading the history must read from both sides to fully understand history. This is because people living at that time will care about it. If one side says something bad about the other, the reader might get the idea that the other was bad and misunderstand it. This is why people must understand that people do have different opinions and therefore there is no correct “history”.

 

Bibliography:

桑子, かつ代, and Russell Ward. “銀座地価が過去最高に、ブランドや免税店が続々-坪2億円取引も.” Bloomberg. Bloomberg, 23    Mar. 2016. Web. 25 May 2016. <https://www.bloomberg.co.jp/news/articles/2016-03-22/O460BS6JTSF201>.

Colombo, Jesse. “Japan’s Bubble Economy of the 1980s.” RSS. The Bubble Bubble, 4 June 2012. Web. 27 Apr. 2016.            <http://www.thebubblebubble.com/japan-bubble/>.

“Japan.” Britannica School. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2016. Web. 26 Apr. 2016.  <http://school.eb.com/levels/high/article/106451#23220.toc>.

Gapminder Assessment

The two countries that I have chosen to compare and contrast are Japan and Kenya. Japan is a MEDC and Kenya is a LEDC. MEDC stands for More Economically Developed Country and MEDCs have higher GDP per capita and higher standard of living than LEDCs which stands for Less Economically Developed Country. To identify weather a country is a MEDC or LEDC, we use indicators such as GDP per capita, infant mortality rate and life expectancy.

is

Screen Shot 2015-11-25 at 9.28.09 AMA development of a country shows how much a country grew over the years. The development of a country is shown by different indicators such as birth rate, literacy rate and life expectancy. Kenya has been a LEDC more than 60 years ago and it still is a LEDC. Even though it is a LEDC, Kenya has gotten closer to MEDC compared to 60 years ago, which is in 1955. Its HDI, GDP per capita and other indicators have been increasing, but it still is not a MEDC. On the other hand, Japan has been a MEDC for more than 60 years. 60 years ago, Japan was in place of Kenya now. It has developed more in last 60 years and it is getting closer to the top.

is

to

Birth rate of a country is the total number of births per 1,000 population. Kenya, which is a LEDC, has the birth rate of 36Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 8.13.10 PM and Japan, which is a MEDC, has the birth rate of 8 births per woman. This shows that LEDCs have much higher birth rate than MEDCs. As you can see on the Gapminder graph, the birth rate seems to be affected by the GDP per capita of the country. In the graph, Kenya and other LEDCs have high birth rate but less GDP per capita, when in MEDCs such as Japan, the birth rate is less but GDP per capita is very high. I think this happens because if the country is wealthy, there will be good medical care and so mothers will not need many children but if the country is poor, there will not be as good medical care as in the MEDCs and so mothers will need to give birth to many children. Another reason can be because of the roles of children in MEDCs and LEDCs. In LEDCs, there are many children that work and not go to school. The parent will not have to work as hard if they had few children that helps them. However in MEDCs, all children would goto school and the parent would try to get them into good schools and good universities for their future. Going to good school and universities costs a lot. In another words, in MEDCs, the children are not quantities but qualities when in LEDCs, its the opposite.

story

Population growth rate is the amount of increase in population of a Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 7.56.11 PMcountry, that is expressed by percentages. The population growth of Kenya is 2.7% and the population growth of Japan is -0.2%. The Gapminder graph on the right shows that when the GDP per capita of the country is high, the population growth is low. I think this is because if the GDP per capita  is high, it shows that the country is wealthy and has money to spend on medical care. If the country has good medical care, the infant mortality will be less, so the mother does not have to give births to many children. Therefore if the birth rate of children is low, the population growth will always be low as well.

japan

Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 7.52.08 PMInfant mortality rate is the number of deaths of children under the age of five year old per 1,000 live births. The infant mortality rate of Kenya is 51 and Japan’s infant mortality rate is 2. Like the other indicators before such as birth rate, high GDP per capita means good medical care and if there is good medical care, the infant mortality rate will surely be less.

and

is

to

have

GDP per capita stands for gross domestic product and it is the income of the country divided by the population, showing that if everyone had equal share of money, each person will get the GDP per capita. The GDP per capita of Kenya is 1,245.51 USD and the GDP per capita of Japan is 38,633.71 USD. This shows how MEDCs such as Japan are much more wealthier than LEDCs such as Kenya.

is

HDI stands for human development index and it is a indicator that measure and rank the countries based on life expectancy, literacy rate and GDP per capita. The HDI of Kenya is 0.535 and Kenya is 147th of the countries. The HDI of Japan in 0.890 and Japan is 17th of the countries. Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 8.45.20 PMScreen Shot 2015-11-19 at 8.53.15 PMScreen Shot 2015-11-19 at 8.58.04 PM

is

Fertility rate is the number of births per 1,000 women. In Kenya the fertility rate is 4.5 children per woman when in Japan, the fertility rate is 1.4 children per Screen Shot 2015-11-19 at 9.05.50 PMwoman. The graph shows that the higher the GDP per capita, the less the fertility rate. I think this happens because if a country is wealthy, they will have good medical care and therefore less infant mortality rate. If your child is very likely to live long, there is no need for parents to have any children. However if the infant mortality is low, the parent needs few children so that not all of them will die. Also in MEDCs, there are many people who choose not to be married. There are many reasons for it, but because people are not marrying, there will not be many children born in that country. Therefore it makes low fertility rate.

is

Life expectancy is the average period a person lives in a country. Kenya’s life Screen Shot 2015-11-21 at 6.48.03 PMexpectancy is 61.08 years. Japan’s life expectancy is 84.74 years. The life expectancy is mostly affected by the quality of the country’s medical care. If the country has a very good medical care, it is very likely that people are going to live longer, like in Japan. However if the country has bad medical care, it is likely that the country will have low life expectancy. The quality of the medical care is depended on how wealthy the country is because if the country is poor, they will not have enough money to spend on medical care. Another reason of MEDCs having higher life expectancy than LEDCs’ life expectancy can be because of nutrition. In MEDCs, most people are able to get food and get nutrition because they are wealthy enough to buy food. However in LEDCs, there are many people who does not have enough money to buy food, and therefore not enough nutrition. Nutrition is very important in living a long life. So, the country with low GDP per capita will have low life expectancy.

is

Literacy rate is the percentage of adults who can understand, read and write statements. Literacy rate Screen Shot 2015-11-21 at 6.58.37 PMdepends on the country’s school enrolment rate. Kenya’s literacy rate is 72.2% and Japan’s literacy rate is 99%. Japan is one of the countries with highest literacy rate. A country’s literacy rate is affected by the GDP per capita. GDP per capita shows the wealthiness of a country and if a country is wealthy, they will have more schools and more people enrolling in schools. However if the country is poor, there will not be many schools for people to goto and people will not have enough money to goto schools. Also, in some of the LEDCs, there are wars going on. When wars are happening, people do not take education but is fighting. Therefore literacy in LEDCs are lesser than the literacy rate in MEDCs.

to

From these indicators used to indicate how developed a country is, I have found many differences between MEDCs and LEDCs. In LEDCs, the birth rate, the population growth rate, the infant mortality rate and fertility rate are much higher than in MEDCs. However the GDP per capita, HDI, life expectancy and literacy rate are much higher in MEDCs than in LEDCs. I noticed that the main reason for the differences is because of the difference in GDP per capita. Every country need money in many ways such as medical care, education, infrastructure and so on. However in LEDCs, there are not enough money to provide these things and that makes those countries LEDCs. MEDCs have enough money to provide what is needed, so the people of that country will be more educated, will be able to live longer and so on. How wealthy a country is seems to depend a lot on its development.

is

Sources:

  • “Birth Rate, Crude (per 1,000 People).” Birth Rate, Crude (per 1,000 People). World Bank Group, 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.CBRT.IN>.
  • “Fertility Rate, Total (births per Woman).” Fertility Rate, Total (births per Woman). The World Bank, 2015. Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.TFRT.IN>.
  • “Human Development Reports.” Human Development Index (HDI). United Nations Development Programme, 2014. Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-index-hdi-table>.
  • Rosling, Hans. “Share Graph.” Gapminder. Gapminder, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://www.gapminder.org/world/>.
  • “Literacy Rate, Adult Total (% of People Ages 15 and Above).” Literacy Rate, Adult Total (% of People Ages 15 and Above). The World Bank, 2015. Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS>.
  • “Mortality Rate, Infant (per 1,000 Live Births).” The World Bank. The World Bank, 2015. Web. 27 Nov. 2015. <http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.IMRT.IN>.
  • “Population Growth (annual %).” Population Growth (annual %). World Bank Group, 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. <http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.GROW>.
Skip to toolbar