February 28

Les habitudes alimentaires de ma camarade Sophie!

Les habitudes alimentaires de ma camarade Sophie!

Mon interview!

  1. D’habitude, tu bois du limonade ou de l’eau? “Je voudrais du limonade mais je bois souvent de l’eau.”
  2. En general, est-ce que tu manges du poulet pour le dîner? “Oui, J’en mange souvent.”
  3. En general, est-ce que tu aimes des legumes? “Oui j’aime beaucoup des tomates, mais j’en mange des legumes un peu.”
  4. Qu’est-ce que tu mange pour le dejeuner a l’ecole? “Je mange des mandarines et je bois du jus de pomme.”
  5. Combien de fois tu mange des fruits par semaine?  “Je mange des fruits tous les jours mais mes fruits préférés sont le kiwi et les tomates.”
  6. Est-ce que tu aime manger des fruits acidulés? “Oui, j’aime beacoup, et j’adore du citron.”
  7. Est-ce que tu bois du jus d’orange? “Non je n’en bois pas mais je bois du jus de pommes.”
  8. D’habitude, tu prpends du pain au dîner? “Non je n’en mange pas, mais je mange au petit dejeuner.”
  9. Est-ce que tu mange beaucoupde restaraunt rapide. “Non je n’en mange beaucoup souvent.”
  10. Est-ce que tu manges du chocolat souvent? “Oui, je mange du chocolat souvent.”

 

Mon évaluation

Elle est tres controller mais elle mange trés bien tous les jours. Elle mange beaucoup des fruits et des legumes mais elle ne mange pas le poisson. elle est en bonne santé parce qu’elle mange assez de fruits et de légumes. Elle aime beaucoup des tomates et elle aime le Kiwi mais elle ne mange pas beaucoup de variété des legumes et des fruits. Elle est un mangeur difficile mais elle mage beaucoup et elle aime le cuisine de japonais.


Mes recommandations

A mon avis, tu as besoin de manger du poisson et des féculents parce que c’est bon pour toi. Aussi tu as besoin de manger plus a l’ecole parce que tu es fatigué pendant la jour. Tu manges trop de tomates et du bœuf mais pas assez de variété. Tu as besoin de manger du poisson et du pain trois fois par semaine et tu as besoind de boire du lait pour calcium supplémentare. Aussi, tu as besoin de boire du caffeine boit pour s’assurer que tu nêtes pas fatigués.

 

 

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January 23

Les résultats de ma recherche sur la Côte d’Ivoire

Factual  How can I remain healthy? What is a healthy lifestyle? How does food reflect our culture?

To remain healthy, I would suggest eating a variety of vegetables, fruits, meats and more. It is suggested that in order to stay healthy you need to keep a balanced diet where you eat a variety of foods and receive the correct amount of protein, carbohydrates, and more in order to feel your best. Excercise, good amounts of sleep, and staying active in the outside world can help boost your emotions and make sure that you are healthy and feeling your best at all times as they ensure that you are ready for the day ahead. It is crucial to have a constant positive attitude and strong motivation to stay healthy as it will make sure that you have a more sustainable and enjoyable lifestyle. Our food reflects our culture as based on where we are from, there are different tastes, colours, and flavours and through this, it can show the emotions of culture, attitude, and supposed spiritual foods. Food can represent our cultures through the colours as it can help show emotions and teachings of religion as bright may suggest happiness or holy spirits or dark may suggest sadness and evil, as well as colours, can represent the intensity, and culture can influence your taste to better fit what you can get from where you are from so that you are receiving the right nutrition.

Conceptual   Is our diet influenced by our culture?

Our diet is influenced by our culture as because depending on where you are from, the different foods you will grow up to eat, and therefore you will be more adjusted to the taste of your nation. In different nations and cultures, different foods are available and for that reason, we have to adapt to what we can get and that will still give us the correct nutrition and vitamins in order to keep us bright and happy during the day. Our diet can be influenced by availability in cultures as well as through teachings as some foods may have myths about them and therefore you are encouraged or discouraged to eat those foods as they could be thought to bring you different kinds of luck or fate.

Debatable  To what extent is this statement true: “ Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are”

I think that this statement is not true almost at all as you can eat unhealthily and still be happy, as well as you can eat healthily and still be unhappy, it is all about the decisions you make that define who you are, and sometimes what you eat is what you eat because it is all you can eat. From personal experience I know this as I like to have fun and cherish moments and although I do eat healthy and organic food, and exercise, there are occasions when I eat junk food, yet that does not define who I am as it may be because I am in a rush and need quick food, or it is all that is left in the fridge, and for that reason I am not what I eat.

10 Essential Facts

  • There is a life expectancy of 54.7 years old.
  • The official language is French although there are 60 vernacular languages.
  • The leading producer of cocoa for years with more than 45% of the world’s production.
  • 95.4% of children attend primary school.
  • The capital is Yamoussoukro.
  • The head of the government is Alassane Ouattara.
  • Independence day is August 7th and it is a national day off.
  • It has an area of approximately 322000 kilometres squared.
  • 70.3 inhabitants per kilometre squared.
  • The 3 main religions are Christianity, Islam and Animism.
  • What types of food products are specific to Côte d’Ivoire?

  • The most common types of foods that are specific to the Ivory Coast are Cocoa, Corn, rice, millet, and yams as these grow best in large amounts under the extreme weather conditions and climate of the Ivory Coast. These foods are all organic and easy to farm as well as manageable and cheap and therefore sustainable, making for a healthy diet providing the nation with the correct nutrition and food for a cheap price as the majority of the population work in agriculture and therefore rely on their crops for money, and cannot afford expensive spices and herbs but instead rely on mass-produced, organic fruits, vegetables, and grains.

  • How are these food products used in the Ivorian diet?

    • The Agni and Abron groups survive by farming cocoa and coffee. The Senufo people live in the country’s northern savanna. They cultivate rice, yams, peanuts, and millet. Rice with a peppery peanut sauce is often enjoyed by the Senufo people. The Dioula of the far northwest depends on their cultivation of rice, millet, and peanuts to survive, while the Kulango people of the north, who are mostly farmers, grow yams, corn, peanuts, and watermelons. Those living near the coast enjoy a wide variety of seafood.

  • Which dishes are specific to Côte d’Ivoire?

  • The national dish is fufu, plantains, cassava, or yams pounded into a sticky dough and served with seasoned meat and vegetable sauce called kedjenou. It is typically eaten with the hands, rather than knives and forks. Kedjenou is most often prepared from peanuts, eggplant, okra, or tomatoes. Attiéké is a popular side dish. Similar to the tiny pasta grains of couscous, it is a porridge made from grated cassava.

  • Give an example of a specific recipe with its picture and the ingredients used. Please provide some background information about this recipe.

    Cornmeal Cookies

    Image result for cornmeal cookies cote divoire

  • Cornmeal cookies are used to go with different hot beverages and are often used as a little dessert or appetiser to warm up someone in cold weather or in the Ivory Coast’s sake used as a delicacy that is a treat for both children and adults to enjoy on traditional holidays as well as enjoy as a family. They are relatively quick and easy to make as well as taste delicious and for that reason, they are so practical and enjoyed widely by the population of the Ivory Coast.
  • Ingredients

    • ¾ cup margarine
    • ¾ cup sugar
    • 1 egg
    • 1¼ cups flour
    • ½ cup cornmeal
    • 1 teaspoon baking powder
    • ¼ teaspoon salt
    • 1 teaspoon vanilla

    Procedure

    1. Preheat oven to 350°F.
    2. In a mixing bowl, beat margarine and sugar together until light and fluffy.
    3. Add the egg and vanilla and beat well.
    4. In a separate bowl, combine the flour, cornmeal, salt, and baking powder.
    5. Slowly add the dry ingredients to the margarine mixture and mix well.
    6. Drop dough in spoonfuls onto a greased cookie sheet and bake for 15 minutes.

    Makes 3 dozen.

  • Answer the factual question: “Is the Ivorian diet a healthy one?”

  • The Ivorian diet is a healthy diet as it consists of many natural flavours as well as organic fruits and vegetables grown there in Ivory Coast. Ivory coast is big on agriculture and for that reason, their food is extremely fresh and organic to eat, lifting your mood, and providing your body with the correct nutrition and vitamins to keep you going throughout the day. Being the worlds largest producer of Cacao, you can tell that a lot of their fruits and vegetables are quite exotic and favourable, and wide in variety, therefore providing you with different tastes, and making sure that your tastes buds are always alive. Ivory Coast has a good balance of sweet recipes and savoury recipes as well as know how to balance their diet well, keeping them strong to carry on during the day and withstand the humidity.
  • Answer to the conceptual question: “Is our diet influenced by our culture? In other words, how much the Ivorian culture has shaped its diet. For example, did you find that as a former French colony it has adopted some French food products or adopted the French way of eating?

  • I think that the Ivory Coast has adopted their own way of living and eating in the modern day as they now understand different ways of farming and have adapted to better fit their terrain. Saying this, they have adopted some techniques in agriculture and cooking in order to add diversity and skill to their foods while also ensuring that the nutritional value of the foods is made the most of and that food does not go to waste. Also saying this, many of the names are adopted by the French language and therefore use some traditional techniques or materials from the french to add nutrition and flavour to the foods.
  • Give a personal response to the debatable question: “Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are” in the context of Côte d’Ivoire. In other words, in your own view how is it important to eat good food in order to be healthy and fit?

  • It is extremely important to eat good food in order to be healthy and fit, although you also have to be active and involved in exercise, receiving the right amount of sleep and work to ensure that your life is never boring and that you can withstand any task that comes your way. Food is one of the main contributing factors to morality, and the better the food, the more likely you are to be happy, as if you are receiving the correct nutrition to keep you going and you are enjoying the food, it will provide incentive to stay healthy and make sure that you are involved with the real world and out in the fresh air instead of sitting inside alone. I think that when food is diverse and complex it provides the desire to try out more foods, and really gets people out and trying more natural and diverse flavours which when translated into our daily lives, allows people to be more risk takers and try to go outside of their comfort zone.
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August 28

Chapitre 7 La famille!

 

Activité 1: Tu as compris? 
Réponds aux questions suivantes sur Sympa, la famille!

1. What are Isabelle and Thuy talking about?
2. Does Isabelle have brothers or sisters? If so, what are their names?
3. How many cousins does she have?
4. Who are some of the other family members she mentions?
5. How does Isabelle feel about her family? How can you tell?

1) They are talking about Isabelle’s family and their personalities, and what they like and don’t like. Also Thuy was saying that she is an only child and she likes looking through photos.

2) Isabelle has 1 brother whose name is Alexandre.

3) Isabelle has 3 cousins: Loïc, Julie, and Patricia.

4) Her grandparents, uncle and aunt, parents and pets.

5) I think she loves her family although at times they can be stubborn and her brother can be annoying.

Notebook
Chapitre 7
Activité 5: Et maintenant, à toi
Est-ce que la famille d’Isabelle est comme les familles que tu connais? Est-ce qu’elle est différente? Pourquoi?
Dans ma famille Il y a six personne. Il y a ma mere, mon pere, mes freres et ma sœur. J’ai aussi un chien Qui sappelle Boodles. Ma mere, qui sappelle Katherine est tres gentille et aimable mais elle est un peu bavarde. Mon pere, qui sappelle Ceri est gentil et aimable aussi mais il est tres confiant. Mes freres sont tres amusants et genereuses. Ma sœur qui sappelle Hafren a onze ans. Elle est tres intelligente et aimable mais elle est un peu égoïste. Enfin mon chien! Elle est adorable et tres tres mignonne. Ma famille est sensationnell. Ma famille est differentes parce qu’il n’est pas ennuyeux et ils adorent les animaux domestique mais la famille d’Isabelle est un peu ennuyeux et son pere n’aime pas les animaux domestique.
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August 22

Atl Skill Video

Hey everyone! Today as one of the activities we did to learn about the ways to use our blog was we created a video to help the 6th graders understand a specific atl skill more as they have just moved up from elementary school. My group being called Dragon City focused on organisation skills and created the video below showing that school work should be a top priority although that is not to say that our social lives and lives outside of school aren’t important. Enjoy 😀

We used our collaboration, caring and creative skills to work together and form a video with people that we didn’t particularly know very well, that would explain to the 6th graders that work should not be left until the last second and that although your life outside of school is important, school work should be a priority. We performed these skills by managing our time and finding a quiet space to be efficient and upload our video to our blog on time. Also we made sure that everyone knew what our main message was in our video and knew what it was that they were supposed to be doing at each and every moment although we let each other be creative with our ideas and accepted them by incorporating them into our video in order to be more successful and efficient as well as to create a stronger bond throughout our group.

 

Our video had the purpose to show the 6th graders that although your social life is important both in and outside of school, school work should be a main priority, and video gaming should not come above it nor should social media. We also wanted to make the audience aware that when doing work at the last minute, the quality of the work will often be much worse than someone who did it say a week in advance. Also kind of a hidden message within our video was that studying doesn’t have to be boring, you can study with friends and have rewards for doing well, as when something is fun, and you get rewarded for your work, you will often most likely remember whatever it was better compared to when you’re bored, because you will be more focused on the task and not so focused on what is for lunch.

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April 22

Science Superfood Sudden Public Announcement!

Coconut Sugar Superfood Assignment

Have you ever been to a convenience store or a supermarket before, and noticed a food with the label superfood on it, thinking that it is much better than any other regular foods that you would normally buy, but truly not knowing what the term superfood means? Well while you may have noticed the food with a superfood label on it, did you notice the price tag itself, as often they provide high levels of certain nutrients, therefore technically being better for your health, and can be used as great marketing vocabulary to boost sales.

Coconut sugar

Coconut sugar is a natural sugar made from sap from the coconut palm, unlike regular table sugar which requires a longer process, coconut sugar requires two simple steps to harvest and be edible. These steps are:

A cut is made on the flower of the coconut palm and the liquid sap is collected into containers.

The sap is placed under heat until most of the water has evaporated.

This means that it is less processed providing your body with 73.9 grams of carbohydrates, 26.10 grams less of carbohydrates than regular table sugar for every 100 grams which you consume. This can be considered as both positive and/or negative as when you consume carbohydrates, they provide your body with starches and sugars which act as energy sources to your body and keep you moving every day, although if you over consume these carbohydrates, it turns to fat which your body only needs in small portions. This means that when you consume fats from other places in your daily eating routine, it may cause you to over-consume fats if you consume too much coconut sugar  as well as other foods such as fatty fish causing exercise to be more difficult because the fat is worked off after the carbohydrates when exercising meaning that it takes a lot more exercise to burn off a substantial amount of fat than it does when trying to burn off carbohydrates.

Also, many products of coconut sugar have traces of both calcium and potassium which are vitamins which do certain jobs in small amounts, and in order for them to assist in the function of your body, you would need to consume an awful lot of coconut sugar. Calcium is extremely useful in your body, as it helps build bones and teeth. Almost all the calcium which you consume is stored in your bones and teeth for later use, as that is the place where it will be used as mentioned before. Also, coconut sugar provides potassium which is crucial for the function of a heart and plays a key role in skeletal and muscle contraction, making it important for digestive function and movement in your daily routine. 

What other foods have these nutrients? (How much?)

Another food with similar type nutrients to coconut sugar is baked potatoes, as they provide your body with 18 mg of calcium, and 550 mg of potassium per 100 grams, and yet although they do provide substantial amounts of the vitamins and minerals above, baked potatoes only provide your body with 21.44 grams of carbohydrates per 100 grams as opposed to the coconut sugar which provides 100 grams per 100 grams. Although potatoes do provide your body with other useful nutrients such as fibres and proteins which coconut sugar doesn’t, and although potatoes do provide a range of more nutrients, they come in very small portions and would be needed in large amounts for it to make a substantial difference to your body.

One more food with similar nutrients to coconut sugar is white beans, as they provide your body with 62.25 grams of carbohydrates per 100 grams, as well as 173mg of calcium, and 1542mg of potassium per 100grams. Although as you may have noticed, the white beans provide much larger amounts of the vitamins/minerals than coconut sugar, as coconut sugar only has traces of these vitamins/minerals, as opposed to white beans which are a nutrient rich food, and have substantial amounts of these vitamins and minerals which can easily be used and can contribute to the function of your body. Also, white beans provide your body with 24.9 grams of fibre, 1.18 grams of fat,  21.11 grams of protein, per 100 grams, as well as other vitamins and minerals which both your digestive system and body can benefit from in certain ways for example: the protein helps build and rebuild muscle.

Issues with the term superfood

The term superfood, in this case, is inaccurate, as coconut sugar is in no way super, as it is made up partially of fructose which can cause a build up of fat in the liver, which is, in fact, a dangerous disease which can harm both your heart and liver permanently if too much fructose is absorbed. The meaning behind superfood is a nutrient-rich food considered to be especially beneficial for health and well-being, and although coconut sugar does provide 100 grams of carbohydrates and sugar per 100 grams, it provides your body with very little other nutrients, and can actually harm you seriously because carbohydrates turn to fat if  you consume too much, and the fructose in the coconut sugar builds up fat in your liver causing a disease called fatty liver which is extremely dangerous, and can cause pain in the heart and liver.

 

Also, there is an issue with money, and the term superfood with coconut sugar because coconut sugar is not much better for you than regular table sugar, as it still has fructose which is what makes it makes regular sugar bad for you as it damages both the liver and heart, and can affect the process of digestion increasingly. The issue with the term superfood, and money, is that supermarkets are selling coconut sugar for a higher price than regular table sugar because it has the label “superfood” on it, which makes people think that it is better for them than regular table sugar, making them more likely to pay the extra money that supermarkets are charging for a product such as coconut sugar. This also tricks people who do not know what the word superfood actually means, as when they hear the name, it reminds them of superheroes, and superheroes are good, therefore they think that superfoods are always better for you, and will benefit the function of both your digestive system and body. This means that it could cause financial issues with less fortunate people, as they think that in order to receive the correct nutrients for their body to work strong and healthy, they need to buy these superfoods like coconut sugar when really they are almost a scam as they only provide a few more grams of carbohydrates which are not necessarily needed, as it runs the risk of overconsumption of carbohydrates which is actually bad for you. Therefore the less fortunate families could have saved the money for other non-superfoods, and receive more nutrients from regular foods which they can buy more of with the extra money saved from not buying superfoods.

Analysing eating ‘superfoods’ compared to regular foods

All in all, in my opinion, superfoods are in no way super when analysing coconut sugar because it is effectively table sugar, just more natural, therefore giving people the mindset that it will provide more nutrients, which is partly true, as it does provide more of certain nutrients, but not a range of nutrients in the case of coconut sugar. Also, the problem with superfoods is that sometimes the term can be misleading, causing economic and health issues for consumers who maybe don’t have the funds to purchase as much food as they need all the time in order to receive the correct nutrient amounts. Also often regular foods will provide a variety of nutrients as opposed to a high level in just one nutrient like superfoods, which means that regular foods are more worthwhile, as they require you to eat a lower quantity of the food in order to receive all the nutrients your body needs to function both healthily and correctly. Finally, I would suggest sticking to eating regular foods, but spreading out the amount of nutrients you consume so that you receive the correct amounts, as opposed to eating several more expensive superfoods, as they can cause overconsumption, and issues with digestion and the function of your body because it is much more difficult to track the amount of nutrients you are consuming, when eating several separate superfoods, all providing your body with a different amount of a certain nutrient each.

Finally, normal foods are better than superfoods because the term superfood just means that a food has a high level of one nutrient at the minimum, which means that when you are consuming these foods, you could believe that you are receiving the correct amounts of each and every nutrient, when really you may only be consuming one nutrient, especially in the case of coconut sugar, as you are really only consuming a considerable amount of one nutrient, carbohydrates, whereas white beans provide your body with a high level of multiple nutrients, as well as noticeable amounts of vitamins/minerals as opposed to only traces, making them better for a healthy and balanced diet. All in all, I would say normal foods are better because they provide a larger range of nutrients, as opposed to a single one, this makes regular foods better for a balanced diet, as there is less of a possibility of overconsuming a single nutrient, instead, you consume correct amounts of each individual nutrient, therefore them being better for you.

Citations: 

“Full Report (All Nutrients): 45002583, MADHAVA, ORGANIC COCONUT SUGAR, UPC: 078314206647.” USDA Branded Food Products Database. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Jan. 2017. Web. 20 Apr. 2017. <https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/9981?manu=&fgcd=&ds=>.

“Basic Report: 11356, Potatoes, Russet, Flesh and Skin, Baked.” National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, May 2016. Web. 20 Apr. 2017. <https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/3084?manu=&fgcd=&ds=>.Bsc, Kris Gunnars. “Coconut Sugar – Healthy Sugar Alternative or a Big, Fat Lie?”

Bsc, Kris Gunnars. “Coconut Sugar – Healthy Sugar Alternative or a Big, Fat Lie?” Authority Nutrition. Authority Nutrition, 18 Aug. 2016. Web. 20 Apr. 2017. <https://authoritynutrition.com/coconut-sugar/>.

“5 Not-So-Sweet Facts About Coconut Sugar.” Yahoo Beauty! Yahoo Health!, 17 Aug. 2015. Web. 20 Apr. 2017. <https://www.yahoo.com/beauty/5-not-so-sweet-facts-about-coconut-sugar-126700104968.html>.

“Basic Report: 16045, Beans, Small White, Mature Seeds, Raw.” United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28, May 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2017. <https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/4784?manu=&fgcd=&ds=>.
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April 7

Child Labour Industrial Revolution

Robert Dickens (A boy child worker)

Robert Dickens, A 10-year-old boy who works currently in a textile factory receiving 3 shillings a week. He was originally recruited at the age of 6 as a chimney boy, although he had no say in going into work, his foster parent signed him off to a chimney sweep organisation owner without consulting Robert. He worked in the chimney sweep industry for 2 years before being fired because he was late too often, and although he found that unfair because of the working hours, he was relieved to get out of that business as he received a lung infection from cleaning the chimneys. Almost instantly after being fired though, he received a job in the textile industry as a boy worker who cleaned the machines while they were running, while also manning some of the machines himself. In this job he received 6 shillings a week, although the treatment was much worse, first of all, he was late out of bed, so the factory owner (Sam Washington) pulled him out of bed and pulled him to the factory naked with his clothes in his hands to be put on there. Not to mention that he also lost a thumb while trying to clean out the machine from below in his first week.

 

February 15

What Caused the Industrial Revolution?

Coal extraction was the foundation of the Industrial Revolution due to its use in producing power to run machines and smelt ores. The Industrial revolution was one of the most crucial events in human history mainly because of how it shaped the world which we live in. It provided products which are almost essentials in everyone’s life in the modern day and age. Although without coal extraction none of this would be possible, due to its use in many of the main factors of the industrial revolution. Take the railways, a key invention during the industrial revolution which increased the speed which people could travel at, and although in the modern day coal is not used in railways, many of the first trains were either powered by coal or steam, and in order to create steam, people used coal to heat up water until it evaporated and transformed into steam. Without the power that coal was used to produce, none of the machines that are used to create electronics, clothes, and much more would exist because everything would still have to be created by manual labour, as opposed to having an automatic machine which could make the same product 10 times faster. Overall, though coal extraction was crucial in the Industrial Revolution due to how it powered semi-automatic and automatic machines, as well as how it provided energy for lighting and other devices used in everyone’s daily life.

 

Image result for burning coal

Image result for coal extraction

Sources:

https://www.google.co.jp/search?q=coal+extraction&espv=2&biw=1212&bih=799&site=webhp&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiuuIGPwpHSAhWJbbwKHRhaAkUQ_AUIBigB#q=coal+extraction&tbm=isch&tbs=sur:fmc&imgrc=mS6fNHPzRi0yxM:

https://www.google.co.jp/search?q=COAL&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwicqP-6wZHSAhWKi7wKHWrAB04Q_AUICCgB&biw=1212&bih=799#q=burning+coal&tbm=isch&tbs=sur:fmc&imgrc=EHBycFrtTY90YM:

November 21

What elements go into our smartphones?

Introduction

Technology is used in everyday of our lives, whether it is a laptop, tablet, or even a phone, technology has become almost an essential of everyones lives. It allows you to navigate through a new area with the in built map, it allows you to connect with friends, and family abroad with the simple tap of a button. These are just 2 of the many benefits of having electronics in your life, but with these positives also come negatives but many people don’t realise them as they are to caught up in having to get the latest model of an electronic. Many of these issues do not impact the consumer, but they impact the origin of the production line as people are being forced to work in these mines with appalling working conditions. These working conditions may mean being forced to work in the mines 24/7 without any breaks, not being payed a fair amount, and also when another rebel group, or the military comes to take over the mines, the miners are forced to fight.  For my project, I decided to research what goes into our Iphones, because they are transportable, and they have many useful features which can keep you safe.

Who develops the Iphone?

 The Iphone is a piece of technology that some people would consider an essential in modern day life. It allows people to navigate through new places, communicate with other people easily, entertain themselves, and much, much more. The newest Iphone’s price starts at 769$, but this does not include the chargers you might have to but with it.  The Iphone is developed by a company named Apple, which is one of the world’s leading companies in electronics. Apple have released around 10 different models of the Iphone, and whenever a new one comes out, consumers feel the need to go and buy it even though they might already have a phone which is perfectly fine. This is a serious issue because although Apple don’t use conflict minerals connected to rebel groups, it is still a waste of the elements that are inside the phone as they are rare, valuable, and they can take a lot of manual labour to collect.

So what exactly goes into our phones?

Our Iphones are made up of many different elements, but some of the main ones that I researched were: tin, tungsten, tantalum, and gold. All of these elements and more make up what allows your phone to function correctly and safely. Along with the elements that make up your phone, there are also compounds which help your phone function as it should. Two of these compounds that I decided to look into are Indium Tin Oxide, and aluminosilicate glass. These two compounds help make up the screen, and are crucial for a phone as the screen is what allows people to actually use the phone.

 

What  are these compunds made up of, and what are the compounds used for?

Indium Tin Oxide

  • Indium tin oxide is a mix of indium oxide, and tin oxide, and it is used in the transparent screen at the front of the iPhone. The reason why it is used is because it conducts the electricity from the rest of the phone, allowing the screen to function as a touch screen. This is important because without the touch screen on your phone, you would not be able to use any of the gadgets downloaded on the phone.

Aluminosilicate glass

  • The glass which is used on the majority of smartphones, is aluminosilicate glass which is made up of off aluminium oxide, and silica. The glass also contains potassium ions which help strengthen the glass. This is what makes up the screen, and is what allows people to see what they are doing on the phone.

 Where are these elements mined? Why, and how are they used?

Tantalum (Ta)

  • Atomic number: 73

  • Melting point: 3,020 °C

       Where is Tantalum found?

  • The Congo possesses 80% of all the tantalum in the world, but they only mine a small fraction of it due to rebel groups who take over the mines. Even though Congo possesses most of the world’s coltan (tantalum ore), they are the world’s third largest producer/exporter of tantalum after Mozambique and Brazil. 

       What does Tantalum do inside your phone, and why is it used?

  • Tantalum stores electricity in your phone, without it your phone would die, and go silent. Tantalum is used because when it is refined it becomes a heat resistant powder that can hold a high electric charge. It’s a vital component in a large amount of small electronic devices, especially in mobile phones, laptops, and other electronic devices. 

 

Tin (Sn)

  • Atomic number: 50

  • Melting point: 231.9 °C

       Where is Tin found?

  • Tin is mainly produced in China, Indonesia, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil, but it is often shipped to wealthier companies where the element is either not available, or it is extremely rare. The reason why it is shipped is because Tin is extremely cheap where it is collected as it is quite common, but when it is transported, it gains value as it becomes rarer. 

       What does Tin do inside your phone, and why is it used?

  • Tin is used as a solder for circuit boards because it is cheap, and affordable, and it also has a low melting point in comparison to other metals. The reason why the low melting point is useful is because you can melt it easily, and whilst it is melted, you can combine two wires by putting them in the tin, so when it hardens, it continues on the circuit. 

 

Tungsten (W)

  • Atomic number: 74

  • Melting point: 3,422 °C

       Where is Tungsten found?

  • Tungsten is mined in China, Russia, Portugal, Austria and Bolivia. China is reported to have about 75% of the world’s tungsten supply, and is the world’s greatest producer of tungsten, with Russia, Canada, Austria, and Bolivia also in the category of top 5 tungsten producers.

       What does Tungsten do inside your phone, and why is it used?

  • Tungsten makes sure that your phone vibrates, and is useful for text messages and phone calls.  It can also be used to connect the interconnecting copper layers, with the transistors. Tungsten is used because it is heavy, and it can be compacted into small area’s, and still have a great weight. This is useful because a phone needs to be compact so it can fit in people’s pockets, and this allows the phone to vibrate, while also leaving room for wiring.

Gold(Au)

  • Atomic number: 79

  • Melting point: 1,064 °C

       Where is Gold found?

  • Gold is produced mostly in China, United States, Russia, Australia, and South Africa. The reason why these countries are the main producers is because a lot of them are large countries which are some of the richest countries in the world meaning that the producers can sell the element for a lot more in these countries as the consumers have more than enough money to buy the gold. This is shown through the difference in the top ten gold mines, and the top 5 producers because the top 10 gold mines are in the following countries: Indonesia, Papa New Guinea, South Africa, Uzbekistan, Russia, Mongolia, Dominican Republic, Australia, and Ghana.

       What does Gold do inside your phone, and why is it used?

  • Gold is used in circuit boards and wiring because it has a low electrical resistance (it conducts electricity well) , and it doesn’t corrode like other metals. The reason why these chemical properties are important is because the wiring in your phone is often exposed to oxygen, and it needs to be able to continue on the circuit without corroding. Gold is also the most valuable metal in your phone. 

What are the issues with using conflict minerals?

The following issues affect the majority of countries who have mines which contain the conflict minerals mentioned above. These countries tend to have no real sense of government or leader who has great power over the population. This allows for almost anything illegal to be ignored, as people aare not punished as much as they should be when they commit crimes.

Ethical issue

Children are being forced by rebel groups to work in mines to gather the elements which are in our electronics. Also when the rebel group is under attack, the children are given guns, and are forced to go fight. This is wrong on so many levels because one iPhone could mean one child’s life, and when you are a child, you shouldn’t have to worry about being forced to go and fight with a gun. 

Government Issue

Rebel groups are taking over these mines which contain extremely valuable ores which when are smelted, and refined, are used in our technology. This is a big issue for governments in these poor countries, as they have no real source of income, and also they have no control over what is going on in the mines.

Safety Issue

The mines which contain the resources used in our phones tend to be ran by rebel groups who use the minerals from the mine as an income/source for weapons, and explosives. This can be really dangerous for the workers in the mines as there may be remaining explosives left in the mines, and also when the current rebel group is defeated by another, the workers may be harmed, tortured or even killed by the new rebel group as a sign of power and dominance.

Economic issue

The democratic republic of Congo is one of the mineral richest countries on the planet, yet Congo is still one of the poorest countries in the world. This is due to the rebel groups who use these resources to fund their military campaigns (they buy weapons and explosives instead of essentials for miners).

What can we, as consumers do to help?

As consumers, we hold the answer to solving these issues with people fighting over these conflict minerals, and people being forced to work under extreme conditions. We can stop this if we work together as a community, and stop buying electronics from companies that get their minerals from mines which are ran by rebel groups. This will help stop the fighting because companies will start to lose huge amounts of money, making them realise that they are doing something wrong. Once they realise what they are doing wrong, they will start to look at competing companies, and why they are doing so well, and then that is when they will realise that it’s not the product consumers don’t like, it’s the way that the minerals are collected.

Another solution is to spread the word with posters, and social media because people will notice what really is going on “behind the scenes”, and they will act against it, almost forcing these huge electronic companies to change their ways otherwise people won’t buy their products causing them to start to make a loss, and when a company is making a loss, they will either decide to shut down, or they will decide to make a change.

Connecting back to the first solution, we could also buy alternative electronics from companies which use conflict free minerals to create their electronics because although they may be smaller companies with worser quality electronics, but the way they will improve is by using money, because when a company has more money, they can improve their products, but the money has to come from the consumer because of no one is buying the product, the developer see’s no use in improving their product as it is not popular, and it will just put them further in debt.

All in all, these solutions all relate to the same issue that we need to solve as consumers because if a company is making large amounts of profit, a lot of the time, the owner won’t want to change anything because it may have a negative effect on the amount of people buying the product, but if the consumers are making that push for a change, the company will change so that they can continue to make large amounts of profit.

 

Bibliography

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Marcus Bleasdale. “Conflict Minerals from the Congo to Your Cellphone.” PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment-july-dec13-bleasdale_10-05/>.

News, BBC. “DR Congo Minerals: Most Mines ‘conflict Free’ since US Law.” BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-27782829>.

Venkel. “Conflict Minerals Infographic.” Conflict Minerals Infographic. Venkel, n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. <http://www.venkel.com/compliance/infographics/conflict-minerals-infographic>.