Chicken Wing Dissection

Chicken Wing Dissection Labels

Chicken wings and human arms… Although these two have evident differences such as the size, or even the appearance, their functions are quite similar in many ways. To start with, both chickens and human arms have a radius and ulna bone in the forearm, as well as the humerus bone in the upper arm. As for the joints, both shoulder joints are ball in socket joints, and the elbow joints are hinge joints. On the other hand, chickens only have one ball and socket joint in their arm, while humans have two. In chickens, their wrists are hinge joint, while in humans, the wrist are ball and socket joints.

Another similarity between the chicken and human arm anatomy is the function of the muscles… An example of these is the biceps and triceps in the upper arm: when one of them contracts, the other one relaxes. In other words, both chickens and human arms have antagonistic pairs working in their arms.

Community Service Announcement – Is Bee Pollen a Superfood?

 Many foods have been claimed as superfoods, but are they really?                                                                             In many cases, foods have been labeled as a ‘superfood,’ allowing sellers to increase prices, though sometimes, these ‘superfoods’ hold the same amount of nutrients (or sometimes even less) as other foods, the only difference being that this non-superfood is sold for a much cheaper price. The following paragraphs are about the superfood ‘bee pollen,’ what nutrients are in it and what makes it a superfood in the marketing world.

Before being able to call a food super, it is necessary to know which nutrients are in the food, and the reason they have been called superfoods. To start with, in only 100 grams of bee pollen, there are 35.71g of carbohydrates! Carbohydrates are our main source of energy, and these are broken up between two groups: simple and complex carbohydrates. The simple carbohydrates are for short term energy use and the complex ones are for use over a longer period of time. However, consume too much carbohydrate and the nutrients in your body become unbalanced, leading to possible energy swings and weight gain.

Out of 100g, bee pollen also has 7.14g of fats, 16.07g of protein and 5g of fibre; one fifth of one’s daily value needed for fibre. As for the vitamins and minerals, there are not many different kinds, but those present are there in great amounts. There are 7mg of Sodium, 4.5mg of Iron and 27.9mg of Vitamin C, all in a single serving of 100g!

The daily value of Vitamin C needed is 60mg, meaning that with only 100 grams of bee pollen, you get nearly half your needed dose of Vitamin C in a day. Similarly, Iron has approximately a third of the daily value needed in only 100 grams of bee pollen.

Acting as an antioxidant, Vitamin C helps protect various cells “from the damage caused by free radicals.” Free radicals are compounds formed when the body converts the food we eat into energy. Vitamin C also helps the body create collagen, a protein which is used to heal wounds, as well as helping protecting the body from disease. Vitamin C helps the immune system work properly by absorbing iron from plant-based food.

As a comparison, I chose to set bee pollen against honey, to see if these two ‘bee-based’ foods have very different nutritional data. The nutritional information I found in bee pollen compared to raw honey is surprisingly contrasting! In 100g of both bee pollen and honey, the carbohydrates have a difference of 50.24g! Having 35.71g of carbs in bee pollen, raw honey has the immense amount of 80.95g! In fact, carbohydrates (nearly 90% of the honey’s nutrients) and sugars are the only two nutrients found in raw honey. 

I also decided to compare bee pollen with yellow peppers, a food I found is very rich in Vitamin C. Although the raw yellow peppers do not have many nutrients in each 100g, the quantity of Vitamin C has the huge amount of 183.5mg! However, as the daily value needed for Vitamin C is only 60mg, too many yellow peppers and you could get an overdose of this vitamin, which would potentially cause diarrhea, nausea and stomach cramps. As for the rest of the nutrients in this vegetable, 92.02g of 100g in raw yellow peppers is water. So similarly to the comparison with honey, bee pollen is a better choice compared to yellow peppers as our bodies need a balance between nutrients, not just one food with a single nutrient.

There are really not many issues with this superfood: first of all, considering the amount of nutrients in even 100g, bee pollen can definitely be called a superfood. Also, the majority of sources are honest about the nutrients found in bee pollen, and I find the price very reasonable for what it is. 100g of bee pollen can be sold for 15 Australian dollars, just above 10 US dollars, and I think that a dollar per 10g is easily acceptable for a superfood. However, regarding safety issues, bee pollen can be dangerous if one is allergic to pollen. This could cause itching, lightheadedness, swelling, shortness of breath, or at its very worse :anaphylaxis, an extreme whole-body reaction that may lead to death. It is also discouraged to consume bee pollen for those in pregnancy, as it is thought to threaten the infant. Though this has not been confirmed and may not be the case all the time, it is still discouraged to avoid any troublesome situation.

As stated in the introduction, many foods are claimed to be superfoods. Now in view of all the above, I believe that bee pollen can be honestly labeled as a ‘superfood,’ and that it is not only a matter of marketing. I would therefore definitely recommend bee pollen versus raw honey, as we have seen that it holds a surprisingly huge amount of many various nutrients. In this honey, the only nutrients found are carbohydrates and sugar, meaning that for energy, you have it all, but what about all the other nutrients that helps your body function? In the same amount of bee pollen as honey, although honey holds over double the amount of carbohydrates (35.71g vs 80.95g), bee pollen also has protein, fats, fibre, Vitamin C, sodium and iron! This is a matter of decision making towards a more balanced diet.

 

Sources

“Bee Pollen.” The Happy Herb Shop. Happy Herbs Company, 2017. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.

“BEE POLLEN: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings.” WebMD. WebMD, 2017. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. “Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (14. Appendix F: Calculate the Percent Daily Value for the Appropriate Nutrients).” U S Food and Drug Administration Home Page. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 20 Aug. 2015. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

“Full Report (All Nutrients): 45009445, ORGANIC RAW HONEY, UPC: 726635121278.” USDA Branded Food Products Database. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Jan. 2017. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

“Full Report (All Nutrients): 45027332, UNCLE HARRY’S NATURAL PRODUCTS, WESTERN WASHINGTON BEE POLLEN, UPC: 760286610316.” USDA Branded Food Products Database. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Jan. 2017. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

“Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin C.” National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 24 June 2011. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

2011-2017, (c) Copyright Skillsyouneed.com. “What Are Carbohydrates?” SkillsYouNeed. N.p., 2017. Web. 20 Apr. 2017.

Whitbread, Daisy. “Top 10 Foods Highest in Vitamin C.” HealthAliciousNess. HealthAliciousNess, 18 Nov. 2016. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.

 

Mining For Mobiles

Mining For Mobiles

Introduction
Although it sounds surprising enough, each and every electrical device holds some precious yet quite conflicting minerals. For this assignment, the device I chose to research into was the iPhone, as many people living in the 20th century owns one, and have gotten used to the life with one, so found it interesting to find out what they were made of and what their effects are on the rest of the world outside our community. First of all, the iPhone – developed by Apple – has an infinite amount of uses including calling, translation, messaging, gaming, work, camera uses, music, calendar, time, compass, calculator, maps, weather and many more. iPhone prices vary too, from the iPhone 6s starting from $549 to the iPhone 7 Plus that ranges from $769 to $969! 
Materials in the iPhone
Many materials are required to create iPhones, including many rare earth minerals. Examples of these include: Yttrium (Y), Lanthanum (La), Praseodymium (Pr), Neodymium (Nd), Europium (Eu), Gadolinium (Gd), Terbium (Tb) and Dysprosium (Dy). These, of course all contribute to a certain activation for example the vibration or colour of your iPhone. Below is a list of what some of these materials help function:
Yttrium (Y) – Colour screen
Lanthanum (La) – Colour Screen, Phone Circuitry
Praseodymium (Pr) Colour Screen, Phone Circuitry, Speakers
Neodymium (Nd) Phone Circuitry, Speakers, Vibration Unit
Europium (Eu) Colour Screen, Phone Circuitry
Gadolinium (Gd) Colour Screen, Phone Circuitry, Speakers
Terbium (Tb) Colour Screen, Vibration Unit
Dysprosium (Dy) Colour Screen, Speakers, Vibration Unit
Tantalum (Ta) – Controls power flow
Tin (Sn) Solder on circuit board
Gold (Au) To Coat The Wiring, Good Conductor of Electricity
Gold (Au), Tantalum (Ta) and Tungsten (W)
Tungsten (W)
Tungsten (W) is a shiny, silvery-white metal, an element in the iPhone that is used to help create the vibration of your phone. It has a high density of 19.3 g / cm3, meaning that tungsten is a heavy metal. This, as well as it being hard is the reason tungsten is used in iPhones: it keeps the vibration from falling apart.
Tungsten’s melting point is 3414°C: the highest melting point of all known metals. This is important in the iPhone as it can become hot without much evaporation. It is a very malleable and conductive metal, making it useful in electrical devices. It also has five isotopes: 180W, 182W, 183W, 184W and 186W. The average price of tungsten is $24.04 / kg.
Gold (Au)
Gold (Au) is the highest valued metal in each and every cell phone, and has a high density of 19.3g /cm3, causing it to be a great conductor of electricity as it moves electrons easily. The melting point for gold is at 1064.18°C, while its boiling point is at 2836°C. For its isotopes, Gold only has two: 197Au and 198Au. As briefly mentioned before, gold is a highly conductive element, as well as being ductile and one of the most malleable known metals. The average price of gold is $39,545.39 / kg.
As well as many other elements, gold has many uses including some monetary systems, jewellery, architectural ornaments, some artworks… However, as surprising as it might be, gold is a key element in each electrical device. In the iPhone for example, gold is used as a electrical connector as it is “ideal for protecting electrical copper components because it conducts electricity well and does not corrode,” states rsc.org. Indeed, if gold was not fortified, it would break the contact. Gold is also used as wires inside computer chips to produce circuits. To sum up, in a single iPhone 5, there is approximately 34 milligrams of gold, with $1.58 worth of recycling value.
Tantalum (Ta)
Tantalum (Ta), is an element coming from the metal ore Coltan, an insulating layer for electrical devices. Compared to the other two elements, tantalum has a rather low density of 16.4 g/cm3. It is a highly conductive metal of heat, and electricity, as well as being very ductile and malleable yet still quite hard. Tantalum is a very important element in the iPhone as without it, the phone would fall completely silent. Tantalum (Coltan) is also used to control the power flow of the device. 
The melting point of Tantalum is at 3017°C, a very high temperature but not quite as high as tungsten. Similarly to gold, tantalum only has two isotopes: 180Ta and 181Ta. The average price of tantalum is  $125.84 / kg and has a boiling point of 5455°C.
Who are the Producers?
Gold and what are known as the 3 T’s: Tungsten, Tin and Tantalum, are four minerals that are in each of our technologies. All these mostly come from the eastern area of Congo, Africa, under brutal force and slavery.
Gold’s top three producers are China (producing approximately 13.61% of all gold), Australia and the USA. However, there are quite a few other countries with resources of gold such as South Africa, Peru and Russia. As for tungsten, it’s three main producers are China, Russia and Bolivia, and for Tantalum: Brazil, Rwanda and China.
In general, Africa is an extremely important source of minerals, especially with the DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo) in central Africa, producing over 30% of the world’s coltan, South Africa producing platinum and many other minerals such as copper, aluminium, lead, nickel, chromite and manganese. 
Impacts of the Materials in Congo
Ethical Issues
One of the major issues that happens too is the illegal exportation of the minerals from Congo into neighbouring countries Uganda and Rwanda. This already makes it difficult to keep trace of the minerals, and even more after they are exported to the far east, and blended with other minerals from all over the world.
Economic / Safety Issues
The Congolese make a lot of money each year with the trading of their minerals, and with this money they buy many guns, pistols and other war machines. Over $185 million a year for armed groups was produced from Tin, Tungsten and Tantalum alone in Africa… 
The environment of the mines are dangerous and unreliable, and this along with starvation causes nearly 45,000 deaths each month. In 1998 alone, there were approximately 5.4 million deaths, and not all of these were grown men… “Children as young as six years old still make up an estimated 40 percent of the mining workforce.” writes dissentmagazine.org, meaning that not only slavery, but child abuse is a major safety issue in Congo.
As for the economics, the “lucky” miners can earn up to $5 a day for 12 hours worth of work. As writes dailymail.co.uk; “their minimum wage is $3 a day.” However, in some areas of Congo, these workers don’t get paid at all, and are forced to work as miners or militias. These are most often under harsh conditions and they either end up dying or starving to death.
Environmental Issues
Another big issue that is going on in Eastern Congo is the mountain gorillas. The Virunga National Park in Congo is home to the highly rare and endangered Mountain Gorilla. The majority of these (only 800!) are inhabitants of this park, yet the Congolese government has absolutely no thought on prioritizing this issue over the money they receive with the mines.
Recommendations
Congo has gotten $176,750,000.00 revenue out of gold, including $106,050,000.00 funding the war. Some children as young as six years old are forced to join as miners, as well as thousands, millions even of other people, abused into mining for these minerals.
We should help because overall – as innocent as we may seem – we are in-a-way causing the violence in Congo, acting as the consumers of these electronic devices and as long as we consume, the companies manufacture, and as long as they manufacture, Congo produces, and so on.
If – as consumers – we demanded a new type of technology, some conflict-free products, then the horror and slavery that started after World War II in Congo would finally decrease, and even perhaps be brought to a complete halt. This would help because if many people got together and put so much pressure and protests against Apple, Samsung, and the other electronic manufacturers, they would be forced to cut down the amount of conflict minerals used in the iPhones and other devices. 

 

References
IPhone 7 Buzz. “IPhone 7 Release Date, Specs, Price and Other News.” IPhone 7 Buzz RSS. IPhone 7 Buzz, 2016. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
Inc, Apple. “Buy IPhone 7 and IPhone 7 Plus.” Apple. Apple Inc, 2016. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
Michaud, David. “Mining Your IPhone.” 911 Metallurgist, 2015. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.
Royal Society of Chemistry. “Tungsten – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.” Tungsten – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
Royal Society of Chemistry. “Gold – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.” Gold – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
Royal Society of Chemistry. “Tantalum – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.” Tantalum – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
ENOUGHproject. “Conflict Minerals 101.” YouTube. YouTube, 18 Nov. 2009. Web. 14 Nov. 2016.
News, BBC. “DR Congo Minerals: Most Mines ‘conflict Free’ since US Law.” BBC News. BBC, 2014. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
Rivera, Alex. “Conflict Minerals Infographic.” Conflict Minerals Infographic. Venkel LTD, 2014. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
Kinniburgh, Colin. “Beyond.” Dissent Magazine. Dissent Magazine, 2016. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
Nick Fagge For Mailonline In The Democratic Republic Of Congo. “EXCLUSIVE Picks, Pans and Bare Hands: How Miners in the Heart of Africa Toil in Terrible Conditions to Extract the Rare Minerals That Power Your IPhone .” Mail Online. Associated Newspapers, 22 Oct. 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
War Child UK. WAR Child, 2016. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.
@WorldVisionUSA. “Child Labor: Children Reveal Horror of Working in Mines | World Vision.”World Vision. World Vision, 24 Oct. 2016. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
Rivera, Alex. “Conflict Minerals Infographic.” Conflict Minerals Infographic. Venkel LTD, 2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.