February 16

What material helps the bike frame adapt to the mountain environment?

Bicycle frames are the main component of a bicycle as parts like wheels are attached to it. Because bike frames is the most important part of a bicycle, it is important that it can sustain and adapt to the environment that you are biking in. In this case, we are looking at a bicycle frame that will help mountain bikers adapt to the rough environment. To get a picture of what is going on inside a frame designers head when they’re thinking about building a bike frame, we have to look at something called ‘The Builders Triangle’.
So when builders or designers or whomever are making a bike, they’re trying to balance three things that are all interrelated. First is stiffness, the second is weight and the third is strength. And when you change one of these aspects, the others also get changed, for instance, if you add more material to a bike to make it stiffer, you’re also going to increase its strength and you’re also going to increase its weight. But on the other hand, if you want to make the bike lighter by using less material in the bike frame, you’re going to make it lighter but you’re also going to make it less stiff which means you’re also going to make it less strong which means that’s its going to be more prone to dents and buckling and other not so fun stuff. Builders consider three things when they’re trying to balance their ‘builder’s triangle’. The first thing they consider in this triangle is material, the second thing they consider is the tubing diameter, and third, the tubing wall thickness. So builders try to balance these three things to make a stiff enough bike that is strong enough but also that will be light enough. By choosing the right material, the right tubing diameter, and the right tubing wall thickness, they achieve the perfect bike that is supposed to adapt to the type of biking you are doing.
The first part of the ‘Builders Triangle’ is stiffness. We use the word stiffness and throw it around a lot and a lot of times, we don’t really know exactly what we’re talking about as stiffness is a vague word, especially in biking. But usually in biking, it means the amount of flex of frame gives during the pedal stroke and while riding over bumps. A synonym for stiffness can be ‘malleable’ as it has to adapt to the bumps and the mountain terrain. According to Rei.com, an expert advice bike page says that steel frames are generally considered to be less stiff than aluminum frames. But steel as a material itself is stiffer than aluminum. But nevertheless, steel frames are less stiff than aluminum frames. This is because steel frames tend to have a smaller diameter tubing and thinner side walls because a builder can only make the diameter of steel tubes so big, and the tubing so thin, before they risk the frame failing with regular use. Aluminum frames on the other hand have bigger diameter tubings and thicker sidewalls. Giving these frames thicker characteristics. Frame builders can do this with aluminum by using more material without making the bike too dense because aluminum has one-third the density of steel. To summarize stiffness, aluminum frames are stiffer because of how they’re designed. They have thicker and bigger tubes than steel frames. But, there’s a couple of misconceptions about stiffness itself. The first misconception is that stiffer frames mean less comfort. But this really isn’t all that true because comfort doesn’t really come from your frame. To a certain extent it does but comfort mainly comes from your size to bike ratio like if you are too big for your bike or if the bike is too big for you. Comfort also comes from tire pressure such as how high or low the tire pressure is. There are more misconceptions on if stiffness affects how comfortable you are but your size to bike ratio and the tire pressure are the main ones. The second misconception about stiffness is that less stiff frames are slower because they are less efficient at power transfer. But according to bike expert who refers to himself as a bike genius, Sheldon Brown says that steel frames act as a really efficient spring, so when the frame flexes, eventually all of that energy that is lost in the frame is not actually lost and it gets transferred to this place called the drivetrain interior rear wheel.
The second part of the Builder’s Triangle is weight. Even though builders use more material when constructing aluminum frames, because aluminum has one third the density of steel, aluminum frames of comparable quality tend to be lighter than steel. And they key here is comparable quality. A bike review site called ThoughtCo said that a mid to high-quality steel frame will be lighter than a low-quality aluminum frame because of budding. Budding just means that some parts of the tube have more material than other parts to add strength while reducing the overall weight of the frame. To summarize weight, steel frames are denser than aluminum if both materials are the same quality. And in mountain biking, density is important because you have to adapt to the unusual track and ride through the abusive terrain and density helps it sustain the mountain environment.
The third part of the Builder’s Triangle is strength. When we’re talking about how strong a bike is, we’re really referring to two things. How durable the bike is and how much abuse the bike can handle. In material engineering, there’s this fancy word called ‘fatigue strength’. Fatigue strength is the material’s ability to survive repetitive forces like pedal strokes. Because steel acts as a spring, and has an infinite fatigue strength, no matter how many times you apply the same force to steel, it won’t break. If the steel doesn’t break the first time, it won’t break any other time. For example, say your steel bike frame was lying on the floor and you somehow drop a whole piano on top of your bike frame. If the piano does not damage the steel bike frame, no matter how many more attempts you throw your piano at your bike frame, it won’t break because of steel’s infinite fatigue strength. Aluminum on the other has a limited fatigue strength. And if you use it enough times, it will eventually break. Aluminum bike frames are not the best option in mountain biking because aluminum will fail with enough use. The second part of strength is durability and how much abuse the l frame can handle. Steel can really take a beating and it is the most reliable material you can make a bike out of. Because it relies the most amount of force before bending or breaking, this means that you could generally be rougher on steel bike frames as they can handle more abuse than aluminum bike frames. Steel bike frames are also more likely to survive a crash. Because aluminum is less dense, it is a softer material which means that it will get things like dents more easily. These dents are weak points where the frame is more likely to crack, bend or snap. Aluminum frames are more fragile than steel frames so you have to be careful while you are mountain biking.
In conclusion, I think that for mountain biking, steel frames are better than aluminum frames. This is because steel is not that stiff compared to aluminum. In mountain biking, stiffness is import because it mainly supports you while you are riding over bumps and when you are biking at a fast pace. If your bike frame was stiff, the movement of the bike would be limited and this would cause more accidents and cause you to constantly have trouble while you are mountain biking. The next aspect is weight. Steel is 3 times denser than aluminum which means that steel frames are going to help you adapt to the mountain terrain as it can be abusive and rough. The last aspect in why steel frames are better than aluminum frames is because that it is more durable and it can handle more force and more roughness. Steel has an infinite fatigue strength which is important when you are being rough with the abusive terrain. This means that your bike won’t be dented, bent or even snap like aluminum bike frames. Mountain bikes can be really expensive and if your bike does not break for about 5 years you won’t be regretting buying that bike because with aluminum mountain bikes, you would have to get it fixed or get a new bike constantly because aluminum can’t handle roughness. Steel frames are also better than aluminum frames because of their economic issues. Encyclopedia Britannica states that steel is the most used material in bike frames today and this makes it the cheapest material. This is important because it means that when people are buying a new mountain bike, they are getting the best material for the mountain bike frame but they are also not wasting their money. This is because an aluminum bike frame costs more than a steel bike frame but you will be getting your money’s worth with the steel bike frame because steel won’t break for around 5 years. But the aluminum bike frame has the potential to break and snap in around 6 months. Another factor that matters when you are buying a mountain bike is the environmental factor. I’m more focusing on things like the environmental aspects that will affect the frame itself. Things such as the frame rusting and the frame heating. A lot of people think that aluminum is better for wet-conditioned riding because aluminum doesn’t rust. A mountain bike site called dirtmountainbike.com confirms that aluminum does not rust because rust refers to oxidized iron and iron is found in steel. Although aluminum doesn’t rust, it does corrode. And corrosion to aluminum is just as devastating as rust is to steel. So even though aluminum does not rust, it does corrode. The next environmental aspect which affects both materials is heat from the sun. Heat affects steel but it does not affect aluminum. When heat meets steel, it expands it. This is a problem because steel is really dense and its tubing diameter is meant to be small so it does not become that heavy. But heat is going to cause steel to expand, causing it to become denser everytime you take a ride. This is an issue caused by the environment because it means that your bike is going to be slower and stiffer causing you to be more prone to injuries and accidents. To summarize the economic factors and the environmental factors, steel is cheaper than aluminum because steel is currently the most used material in bike frames but a steel bike frame will become dense from the heat as heat will expand the steel causing it to be denser. To conclude the factors, there will never be a perfect material that will be the best in every aspect because every material has its pros and cons.


“Bicycle.” Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 6 Feb. 2018. school.eb.com/levels/middle/article/bicycle/273207. Accessed 16 Feb. 2018.

Brown, Sheldon. “Frame Materials for the Touring Cyclist.” Frame Materials for the Touring Cyclist, Harris Cyclery, Aug. 2010, www.sheldonbrown.com/frame-materials.html#weight.

Puliti, Beth. “Types of Mountain Bike Frame Materials.” Types of Mountain Bike Frame Materials, ThoughtCo, 17 Mar. 2017, www.thoughtco.com/types-of-mountain-bike-frame-materials-2403708.

Smurf, James. “Which Material Should You Choose for Your Mountain Bike Frame? Carbon vs Aluminium.” Which Material Should You Choose for Your Mountain Bike Frame? Carbon vs Aluminium Read More at Https://Dirtmountainbike.com/Features/Material-Choose-Mountain-Bike-Frame-Carbon-vs-Aluminium-vs-Steel.html#RllUbZby3Egrur4d.99, Dirt MOUNTAINBIKE, 22 July 2016, dirtmountainbike.com/features/material-choose-mountain-bike-frame-carbon-vs-aluminium-vs-steel.html.

“Understanding Bike Frame Materials.” Understanding Bike Frame Materials, REI Cooperation, 2018, www.rei.com/learn/expert-advice/bike-frame-materials.html.

November 27

Political Cartoon that Depicts Stereotypes of Development


This cartoon is supposed to show how men are better than woman. This is shown by how the hammer is there to symbolize men and how the toothbrush is supposed to symbolize a toothbrush. The hammer says that men are the ones who do the job and how they are the ones who make the difference. The toothbrush is there to show that woman are just there to help and don’t make a big impact on whats happening.

April 26

Is an Acai Berry a Superfood?

What is an Acai Berry.

Acai Berry (or Acai Palm) is a fruit that grows on palm tree. It is found in the Americas.The acai berry has energy, lipid, protein, carbohydrates, fiber, and sugar. Energy helps your internal function, builds and maintains cells and body tissues. You need lipid to provide your body with energy and to produce hormones. You need protein to repair cells and make new ones. You need carbohydrates to provide nutrients and carbohydrates help us digest food. Carbohydrates are the first source of energy for our body, without it, protein from our muscles will be used meaning that our body will eat its own muscles! YUCK! Our body needs fiber because it can lower blood cholesterol and mainly because it cleans your colon. Our body need sugar because it gives us a lot of energy for a short period of time.


What nutrients are in an Acai Berry, And what does that Nutrient do

The nutrients in an Acai Berry are Vitamin C, Vitamin A, B6 (Vitamin B), Vitamin K,  Fiber,  Omega fatty acids, omega-6 (linoleic acid), and omega-9 (oleic acid), Protein, Copper, Iron, Zinc, Magnesium, Manganese, Potassium, Antioxidants, resveratrol, cyanidin-3-galactoside, ferulic acid, delphinidin, petunidin, Polyphenols, Flavonoids. But the main nutrients in the Acai Berry is Vitamin A and potassium. Vitamin A helps the growth and development of your vision, immune system. And reproduction. Potassium keeps a normal water balance between your cells and body fluids. Potassium also helps your heart beat properly. Fib


What other food has that nutrients?

Another food that has vitamin a is Carrots. An normal Acai berry has 354 mg Vitamin A per 100 grams (IU). Carrots have 16706 mg Vitamin A per 100 grams (IU). The second highest nutrient in the Acai Berry is potassium. An normal Acai berry has 71mg Potassium. A Banana has 358 mg per 100 g of potassium. You will need to eat around 47 Acai berries to get the Vitamin A for only one carrot. And you need to eat 5 Acai berries to get the potassium of on banana.

Why is this food called a ‘superfood

I think that ‘superfoods’ are called superfoods because they try to lure the people into buying them. Also they put the price up on the ‘superfood’ just to make more money. You could buy a banana for cheaper than an Acai berry and a carrot as well. The acai berry is not a superfood because it only has 1 nutrient that is over 100mg. The highest nutrients in one superfood is Vitamin A with 354 mg per 100 gram but that gets crushed by the carrots 16706 mg of Vitamin A (per 100 grams). ‘Superfoods’ are just called that because they seem healthy and shopkeepers use it as a cheap way to get easy money.

Then it goes to money. Shopkeepers put the label ‘superfood’ so it makes people think that it really is a superfood but it’s not. Because it’s called a ‘superfood’ the money goes up. Think about it. Which is cheaper, one Carrot or 47 Acai Berries. Or 5 Acai berries or one banana. I think that supermarkets use the word ‘super’ just to attract the customers. The problem with using the word ‘superfood’ is that it makes customers think the Acai Berry is better than a banana or a carrot. Which it isn’t. Even though the carrot and the banana have way more Vitamin A and potassium.

‘Superfoods’ vs Normal Foods

Now let’s compare an Acai berry to a normal food. First lets compare fiber. A food that seems like it has a lot of fiber is broccoli. A normal Acai berry has 3.5 mg of fiber per 100 grams. But a broccoli has 2.6. But, the Acai Berry has 0.8 grams of fiber more than the broccoli. But because the Acai Berry is called a superfood it is going to be more expensive than the broccoli. So is 0.8 fiber more really worth it. I don’t think so because you can probably get 2 broccolis for the price of one Acai Berry. So if you are about to buy a superfood make sure it is good. Do some research into it before you buy it because usually a normal food can be better than a ‘superfood’.



“Full Report (All Nutrients): 45186155, ACAI BERRY, UPC: 818411000560.” Food Composition Databases Show Foods — ACAI BERRY, UPC: 818411000560. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service USDA Branded Food Products Database, Jan. 2017. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.


“Basic Report: 09040, Bananas, Raw.” Food Composition Databases Show Foods — Bananas, Raw. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28, May 2016. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.


“Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin A.” National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 5 June 2013. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.


Mann, Fellicity. “Potassium.” Why We Need It, How It Affects Our Body and Natural Sources. Why Do We Need Potassium?, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.


“Basic Report: 11124, Carrots, Raw.” Food Composition Databases Show Foods — Carrots, Raw. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28, May 2016. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.
RD, Michele Turcotte MS. “Acai Berry Nutrition Information.” LIVESTRONG.COM. Leaf Group, 25 Apr. 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.

Category: Science | LEAVE A COMMENT
November 22

What minerals are in your iPhone?


 I am researching about the minerals in the iPhone. The minerals that Im specifically looking at is the 3TG’s. The 3TG’s are Tin, Tantalum, Tungsten and Gold. I chose the 3TG’s because its one of the most important minerals in electronics. And if you don’t use the 3TG’s the electronics that we use today might not be that good.


Tin is mainly from Indonesia, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and China. Tungsten is mainly from Canada, Bolivia, Portugal, Austria, China and Russia. Tantalum mainly comes from Brazil, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Mozambique and Australia.

Tungsten is responsible for your phones vibration. Without vibration, you would not be able to pick up a phone call or get notifications. Tantalum stores the electricity in your phone, which includes the phones battery.  Tantalum is good for storing electricity because it has a really high boiling point of 5487ºC so the phone won’t overheat. Or get broken. Tin makes the screen respond when you swipe and touch with your finger. Gold prevents the wires from breaking by coating the wires. Gold helps solder the circuit board. Gold is good for soldering the circuit board because it melts fast and it can stick 2 wires together really well. Gold is used for this part because it is a good conductor and does not damage the wire. Gold is helpful because it is a good conductor.

Impact of the Materials

The possible money issues relating to the 3TG’s is that Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania and Kenya keep buying the minerals from the Armed Groups, those countries will start to become poor because they will eventually spend all their money on minerals. And because the Armed Groups tax those countries money constantly. 

Evidence: Conflict Minerals 101 Video

The possible Government issues is that that Armed Forces are smuggling the minerals out of their country (DR Congo) illegally. Which means that the government can stop them for smuggling the minerals out of DR Congo and our phones won’t work  anymore.

Evidence: Conflict Minerals 101 Video

In DR Congo, people get forced to work in the mines. If they don’t work in the mines, the miners lives gets threatened and they get physically forced to work.Evidence:

 5.4 Million deaths have been found in DR Congo.

The positive impacts on mining for minerals is that we need the minerals to work most of our technology. But the negative impact is the people get tortured at the same time.

Evidence: Conflict Minerals 101 Video

WHY and HOW should we help?

We can help by buying the minerals which are used in our technology because right now, the Armed Groups are smuggling the minerals out of their country. If they keep doing that, the government is going to eventually stop them from smuggling the minerals out of the country and maybe make the minerals unbuyable. Thats why we should buy the minerals from the Armed Forces so then. we can still be able to use the minerals.

We can also help by stopping people working in the mines because their lives get tortured and they don’t want to work in the mines in the first place. If we stop them from working in the mines, they will have a happier life. We can help this cause by sending a email to the government of DR Congo so he can stop the workers working in the mines.

How can YIS help?

YIS can help by organising a fundraiser so we can get enough money to donate to the other countries so they can buy the minerals from DR Congo. If we do this, the minerals that we use in our phone, will still be able to be buyable from the countries. Another way YIS can help is by running a after school activity to help send an email to the government to stop the people working in the mines.


“What Are Conflict Minerals?” Source Intelligence. Aval Lunch, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

“IPhone 7.” Apple. Apple, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.

Project, ENOUGH. “Conflict Minerals 101.” YouTube. YouTube, 18 Nov. 2009. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.

Desjardins, Jeff. “The Extraordinary Raw Materials in an IPhone 6s.” The Extraordinary Raw Materials in an IPhone 6s. Visual Capitalist, 10 Mar. 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.
Category: Science | LEAVE A COMMENT
November 8

I&S Empire Reflection

Backward-looking Reflection

I knew nothing about the British Empire at the start of the unit. Now I know a lot of facts about the British Empire and India. Now I know most of the things that happened between India and Britain.

Inward-Looking Reflection

I think that the project went well. I could have improved on the citing images part. I like making the slides. I didn’t like doing the research because you have to cite them.

Outward-Looking Reflection

We kind of did our work the same way as others because we all recorded the presentation and did not do a oral presentation. We also had to mostly research about the same things. But we said things differently because most of the other groups had one person speaking for one slide but we shared the speaking for one slide.

Foward-Looking Reflection

The thing I could have improved on is citing the pictures because I forgot to cite most of the pictures. But I cited the websites. If I could have done this piece again, I would have cited more pictures.

<iframe width=”560″ height=”315″ src=”https://www.youtube.com/embed/1gQeOPWx4YQ” frameborder=”0″ allowfullscreen></iframe>

June 10

Symbolic Painting Reflection

PARAGRAPH 1. Explain the subject of your painting.

  • Who is the subject? Why did you choose this person? Why are they important to you?
  • What did you express about this person? (example: their personality? something they like or are interested in? something they did or achieved? their feelings or emotion?) BE SPECIFIC.
  • I chose my brother because he is my brother and he is a important person in my life. He is important to me because he always wants to play with me and we often spend a lot of time together. I expressed love by making my little brothers shirt red and I expressed spending a lot of time with him by showing the things we play with on the background. Also I showed a soccer ball because I usually play with a soccer ball with my little brother.

PARAGRAPH 2. Explain how you communicated your ideas.

  • Which 2 or 3 pictorial elements did you use to express your ideas? Describe each one in detail. What does each of these elements express about your subject? BE SPECIFIC. 
  • What artist or movement or style influenced you? How did you use this influence in your painting.GIVE SPECIFIC EXAMPLES.

I chose color and objects. I used the color red to symbolize love. I chose the objects that my brother and I play with. I chose those objects because I don’t get to see my little brother as much on weekdays so that makes me remember playing with him. The painting style that influenced me is the pixel art style and the graffiti style. The pixel art style is for my little brother and the graffiti style is for the background. I chose the pixel art style because I used to play a game called Minecraft with my friends and my little brother wanted to play as well so that reminded me so thats why I chose the pixel art style. The reason I chose the graffiti style is because my little brother and I usually see graffiti on the walls while we are under bridges on the cars so thats why I chose the graffiti style.

Category: Art | LEAVE A COMMENT
May 22

Unit 2 Art Reflection

(1) In Paragraph 1 you evaluate your process and artwork.

  • STRENGTHS: What did you do very well? What ideas and solutions are you proud of?
  • I think I did well on my carving. Because I made a few minor mistakes and they were hard to notice. I think I did well thinking of using the space on the carving plate.
  • WEAKNESSES: What would you do differently if you did this project again? How would you change your motif?
  • If I would do this project again, I would make my snakes interlock differently. Because I think I my snakes would look better if they interlocked in a different way.

(2) In Paragraph 2 you explain your creative thinking.

  • Choose one of these examples: solving a problem, experimenting with sketching, using imagination, visualizing an alternative possibility, thinking independently, attempting an unusual solution or idea, considering another perspective.
  • Explain how it helped you develop your project ideas.
    • I think I solved a problem by using the space wisely because on my first plan, there were a lot of blank spots on the carving plate. That helped my final design look better. I also chose attempting a idea because I started sketching randomly and then I interlocked the snakes.

(3) In Paragraph 3 you explain the cultural influence and the personal interest that you included in your artwork.

  • What is your cultural influence? What is your personal interest? Describe them in detail.
  • My cultural influence is the Japanese culture. And my personal interest is snakes.
  • Why did you choose them?
  • I chose the Japanese culture because I have been living in Japan my whole life. And I chose snakes because I once say a really cool snake and I thought that it wold be cool to use it.
  • Why are they important to you? Be specific!
  • The Japanese culture is important to me because I have been living in Japan my whole life. And I chose snakes because I saw a really cool snake once.

(4) In Paragraph 4 you evaluate your artwork’s elements (lines, shapes, colors) and principles (pattern, unity).

  • Describe the types of lines and shapes you used in your artwork. Name them.
  • I chose curved lines and circles. I used the curved lines for the snakes body and the eyes for the snakes eye.
  • Describe the colors you used in your artwork. Name them. Why did you choose these colors?
  • I chose green, purple, and red as my ink colors. I chose the colors because the cool snake I once saw was a green and purple snake. And the red is because a lot of people kill snakes.
  • Did you create a unified pattern with your color plan? Is it ordered or random?
  • My color plan is not random. The green on yellow snakes on the corners are there because in a book the words usually come from the corners. And then the red on blue snakes are in the middle because thats usually what happens next. Because the snakes get all bloody from getting killed.
  • Is your artwork interlocking? How accurate is your interlocking?
  • My snakes interlocking is not perfect because sometimes the ink doesn’t go on the carving plate properly.


Category: Art | LEAVE A COMMENT