InS 9: Sustainability in the home

We have been discussing different ways to reduce the impacts of climate change and limit it’s consequences. The goal here is to achieve sustainability?

Sustainability is achieved when any process that interacts with the environment replenishes what it uses so that the process is capable of continuing in perpetuity.  If resources are used faster than they can replenish, then it is unsustainable.

Your first project will require you to address our statement of inquiry for this unit:

In order to create a more sustainable community, we must be innovators.”

You will create a presentation explaining how you can reduce energy consumption in your home or YIS or Yokohama through innovation in order to make it more sustainable

  • Groups of 2 or 3
  • Working towards sustainability and energy saving
  • Gain an understanding of energy consumption (bills, statistics etc)
  • Describe ways you could save energy ? You can think outside the box in terms of technology or ways to reduce other resources in order to achieve sustainability
  • Explain how you will implement the ideas – get family/school/city on board/make them do it?
  • Think about conservation, recycling, reduction, reuse, substitution

This is a presentation, maximum 5 minutes long. Can be done in any way you like. Be creative!!

Here is an example

TSC

Hyperlink your work here

Due date: February 6th

InS 10: Article Analysis Assessment

We have been discussing market failure and externalities. The importance of understanding these things is so that stakeholders (businesses, governments, city planners etc) can allocate resources in order to produce the right amount of any given product or service.

First, here are a few important vocabulary terms: 

  • Externalities (When a 3rd party is directly affected by the good or service that they are not consuming or producing themselves, such as second hand smoke).
  • Merit Goods (good goods, that affect the person NOT consuming/producing the good such as medicines) These are often Public Goods.
  • Demerit Goods (bad goods such as pollution and cigarettes)

Another way to put it is that we want to maximize our utility (happiness) or “Equilibrium” level. It means that the perfect amount of the good or service is produced and consumed.

  • So for example, you eat a bite of ice cream, that first bite would taste the best. But then you eat another and another until you get to the point at which you are completely satisfied (the 9th bite). If you were to eat one more bite it (10) it would make you feel a bit sick. You would not consume another bite if it was to have a negative effect on you (therefore, make you feel ill) so your utility would be maximized at the 9th bite.
  • Inversely, if we do not produce or consume enough of something (say a vaccine for malaria) then we are not at equilibrium or the socially optimal level as there are still people who would  like the good or service but cannot get it. So we need the someone else to intervene and help, this is where the government comes in. They help subsidize the production of the merit good.

Your first assessment with be analyzing economic activities in order to identify the market failure, externalities and solutions to reach equilibrium:

You will need to take an article from the news ( maybe use one of these ) and using the topic of market failure, explain what the problem is (why the market has failed) and how the government could step in to solve the problem through the use of a subsidy or a tax.

Layout:

1) Summarise what the main point of the article is – point out any controversy
2) Explain why the market is failing to be efficient (at equilibrium)
3) Identify the private and third party costs and or benefits
4) Identify the stakeholders in the market and explain if they are hurt or helped and why
5) Explain 2 or 3 possible solutions and evaluate how well they might work given the context of the situation. Evaluate which one is best suited to address the imbalance.
Remember:
You may use a digram to explain your reasoning.

Judgments are made that are supported by effective and balanced reasoning.

  • Make judgments – be specific about what you think.

  • Support judgments with appropriate reasoning – explain why you came to that conclusion and mention the evidence you have for making assumptions or synthesising points.

Consider alternative points of view (be clear about specific stakeholders) or alternative outcomes to the ones you have discussed. Also support these alternatives or rank in order of priority/effectiveness. Give room for claims and their counterclaims.

Here is an example. 

In groups of 2: Pick a recent article depicting a market failure and analyze it using the 5 points above. You will present your findings to the class.

  • Presentations should be between 3 and 5 minutes long
  • You may record a video

Hyperlink your presentations here.

TSC (A, C, D)

Due date: Monday January 29th (2nd semester)

InS 9: Management Strategies to reduce the impacts of Climate Change

We have discussed the causes and consequences of climate change.

  • What are the main causes?
  • What are the main consequences?
  • How can we limit the negative consequences of climate change?

PPT

In groups of 2 or 3, you will describe a specific way that we can reduce carbon emissions or mitigate it’s impacts. Explain the benefits and drawbacks of using this strategy in limiting GCC and it’s impacts. Use pictures when possible.

  • Anaerobic digestion
  • Mechanical Biological treatment
  • Gasification by pyrolysis
  • Incineration
  • Resource substitution
  • Geo-engineering
  • Carbon taxes
  • COP 21 and the Paris Accord
  • Planned relocation

Complete your slides here: 9A9C

InS 9: Climate change

The next unit will be about energy production, consumption and conservation.

Part 1:

  • First, what is climate change?
  • What are green house gases? Where do they come from?
  • What is the difference between climate change and the greenhouse effect?
  • What are the consequences of climate change on people and nature?
  • What strategies are used to reduce climate change and its impacts?


In groups, you will answer one of the following questions and present your answers to the class. Use visuals as much as possible.

  1. Create a labeled diagram (poster) explaining the functioning of the greenhouse effect, including the amount of incoming solar radiation absorbed and reflected in/by the atmosphere, clouds, the earth, ice and the ocean
  2.  Explain the main lines of the debate over the existence of climate change? Show both sides of the issue, and evaluate their validity.
  3. List the main (most abundant) greenhouse gases, where they come from and list their different level of “global warming potential”
  4. What major human activities are the main causes of greenhouse gas increase? Explain each activity and the way it releases GHG
  5.  Which nations are the biggest GHG producers? Give a list of each nations and their main source of GHG production.
  6. What does the WWF say about how you could become more energy efficient? Research a few other new technologies that can reduce domestic carbon footprint.
  7. List the possible consequences of global temperature change in terms of:
    1. Agriculture
    2. Water resources
    3. Forestry and ecosystems
    4. Human Health
    5. Extreme weather events.

Include you slides on this presentation: 9A, 9C

 

InS 10: Introduction to Market Failure

In groups, discuss:

  • What do you know about pricing?
  • How do companies calculate the cost of a good?
  • Why are similar goods sometimes priced differently?
  • Why are goods different prices in different places?

Once again:

  • What is supply and demand?
  • Give a concrete example

What is missing in the supply and demand equation?

___________________________________________________________

Market failure is when pricing mechanism leads to an inefficient allocation of (scarce) resources and loss of economic welfare

Today, we will only consider 2 types of market failure: positive and negative externalities

Externalities are the consequence of an industrial or commercial activity which affects other parties without this being reflected in market prices

  • What is not included in the price of:
    • Cigarettes?
    • Cars?
    • Tree planting?
    • Education?

How can we adjust prices, now that we know their externalities?

 

Externalities do not have to be about pricing. Any activity that has an unintended impact on a third party can be seen as an externality.

PPT

Here is another way to put it:

Exercise 1: In your table groups

  1. Define and give one example of:
  • Private cost
  • Social cost
  • Social benefit

2. Explain 2 positive and 2 negative externalities  in the school. (Social benefit and social cost)

————————————————–

Exercise 2:  In groups of 2

Read one of the following articles, describe it to the class while explaining:

Exercise 3: As a class, we will play Externalities Mystery!

You will be divided into 8 groups of 2 or 3

  • Each group will briefly explain wether the hospital should be built or not, base don their card’s perspective.
  • We will then have small discussions on wether or not the hospital construction should go ahead.
    • What were the reasons for your decision?
    • Why were those reasons more significant than any other reason?
    • What other factors might it depend on?
    • What else might you want to know before making a final choice?

Then:

  • Which costs are private costs/benefits, and which are external?
  • Can we put a value on any of these externalities?
  • Who is likely to benefit/suffer the most as a result of the hospital project?

If time:

How is Christmas an externality?

Or spot all the externalities in Dr Seuss’ the Lorax

InS 10 – Kamakura Beach Study Write-Up

Now that we have collected all of our data, it is time to put it all together.

First, make sure all of your paper data is inputed here

PART 2 – graphing results, analysis, conclusion and evaluation

Please use clear headings for these sections.

ANALYSIS

First you will graph your data in order to analyse your findings

* Note – Graphs can be computer generated or done by hand and must have titles, referred to and be integrated into the text, where you talk about them. You should use a variety of suitable graphs to display data. They must be clear, have labelled/numbered axis and titled. Be as creative as you want when illustrating all of your work.

Write your analysis under the headings of each Hypotheses. You will state what we expected with reference to our studies on coastal processes and landforms.( use what we have learned in class! ) You will analyse ( describe and explain ) the data you collected with regard to the expectations of a destructive beach, and state whether or not you have proved or disproved each hypothesis. DO NOT ANSWER THE RESEARCH QUESTION. You will do this in the conclusion. 

Graphing suggestions:

  1. The beach gradient is steeper towards the back of the beach
  • Create a beach profile by graphing the angle of slope from each quadrat of your transect and analyse this bearing in mind what we know about a destructive profile (use class averages)
  • 3D graphing on Excel
  1. Beach material will be larger and more angular towards the back of the beach
  1. The waves will be high ( 1 metre or more ) and frequent ( more than 12 per minute )
  • Use a table or pictograph to illustrate the data and graph the 2 class averages.
  1. There will be a strong longshore drift
  • Analyse your findings referring to prevailing wind, direction of movement  and time taken for any movement of material over 10m. If it is over 3m per minute then it is considered strong.

         5. There is natural evidence (erosional landforms) and evidence of Mitigation (man-made defences) which illustrate that show            the beach is being destroyed.

  • Using a field sketch and the observational notes you made as well as photographs present any evidence of the above. Use lots of photos and be creative here. Annotate your photographs to show what they illustrate.

CONCLUSION

Sum up what you found. Are your hypotheses mainly proven or disproven?  Go through each hypothesis and state whether it’s proved or disproved, based on the summary of your findings you will conclude and give your answer to the question: “ Is the beach at Kamakura Inmuragasaki a destructive beach?”

EVALUATION

Briefly evaluate (discuss positive and negatives)

  1. the methods and how these might have been improved (not the execution of your peers!)
  2. suggest how the study/methodology might be improved 
  3. how the study might be extended.

TSC for this  A, B, C & D

Hyperlink your work here

Due date: 

10A: Wednesday December 6th

10C: Tuesday December 5th

InS 9: Introduction to Social History

Columbus and the Native Americans.

In table groups, discuss the following questions:

  • What do you know about Christopher Columbus? What is your opinion of him?
  • What do you know about Native Americans, also called Indians
  • How did you learn about those things?
  • How do we know that the History we have learned is true?
  • Do Historians have an opinion about the topics they cover? Can they be biased?

Reading 1: Kennedy et al:

As you read, consider the following questions:

  • What is the purpose of this text? Why was it written?
  • What is the author’s perspective in the text? What is the main message?
  • Highlight words or passage who seem to demonstrate a bias, or that could lead the reader to gain a certain opinion on the subject.

Now that we’ve read about the Indians and Columbus:

  • What would you say about them based on your reading?
  • What themes did the readings focus on?
  • If there is a bias, where does it come from and how is it manifested?
  • What information was not included in the text? Why do you think they historians chose to omit it?
  • How is our perception of History shaped by historians?

Reading 2: Zinn

As you read, consider the following questions:

  • What is the purpose of this text? Why was it written?
  • What is the author’s perspective in the text? What is the main message?
  • Highlight words or passage who seem to demonstrate a bias, or that could lead the reader to gain a certain opinion on the subject.

Now that we’ve read a different perspective, discuss the following questions:

  • Has your perspective of Columbus and Native Americans changed after reading this text?
  • If there is a bias, where does it come from and how is it manifested?
  • What information was not included in the text? Why do you think Zinn chose to omit it?
  • What themes did the readings focus on? How do they differ from the Kennedy, David et al reading?
  • How is our perception of History shaped by historians?
  • Are certain types of sources less biased?

Exercise 1:

In groups of 2, you will write a one paragraph description of Columbus’ “discovery” of the Americas and Native Americans, with a clear bias for or against him.

  • Use words that will emphasize your opinion
  • Include/omit the information that will best serve your purpose
  • Do not make up facts!

Part 2: Watch the simple animated video history,

Columbus on trial

Discussion: 

  • How can you read history and be aware of biases?
  • If you were to write about Columbus, what themes would you focus on, knowing that you cannot write everything about everything?
  • What themes would you not include?
  • How to analyze sources
  • Primary and secondary sources

 

Assessment:

In groups of 2, you will now work on your

social history assessment

Write your team members and the specific members or group you will research here

InS 10: Field Trip Beach Study To Kamakura

On November 3rd, we will be going to Kamakura to conduct a few data collection experiments on Inamuragasaki beach in Kamakura.

On the day, you will either meet us:

What to bring:

  • Wear your YIS PE t-shirt
  • Your lunch
  • Water
  • Sunscreen and sunglasses
  • A camera or smartphone
  • Swimsuit and towel for those going in the water.

————————————————————-

The fieldtrip has two main aims

  1. To familiarise you with the processes and landforms of the coastal environment and mitigation methods
  2. To conduct fieldwork required for a geographical investigation of a coastal zone

Our research question is:

“ Is Inamuragasaki beach a destructive beach?”

To help answer this we are gathering data on beach characteristics, beach material, gradient and waves, as well as making observations to decide whether or not it is destructive or constructive  

We will try to prove or disprove the following Hypotheses

  1. The beach gradient is steeper towards the back of the beach
  2. Beach material will be larger and more angular towards the back of the beach
  3. The waves will be high ( 1 metre or more ) and frequent ( more than 13 per minute)
  4. There will be a strong longshore drift
  5. There is natural evidence (erosional landforms) and man made evidence (defences) that the beach is being destroyed

Methodology

We will be working in class groups to make information sharing easier. There will be 8 transects. See map for transects and groups

Each class will be split into 4 groups and will rotate their tasks. See rotation and explanation. You will have a copy of this with you.

Since we will be going with Ms Wilson’s classes, here is our schedule for the day:

Time Task
Morning: 10:30 to 12:00 Tasks 2 and 3: Waves, Longshore Drift  and Observations
Afternoon: 12:30 – 2:00 Task 1 – Beach Material and Gradient

 

PART 1 – Introduction, location and method

Before we go, you need to have a good understanding of the area we are going to research, and of the methodology of our experiments

In groups of 3, you will need:

  • A title page – include your name
  • Contents page ( this will be done last)
  • Clear headings for each section – INTRODUCTION/LOCATION, METHOD etc
  • INTRODUCTION
    • A one or two paragraph description of the location (history, geographic location and site)
    • A hand drawn map of the beach, and another situating it in Japan
    • The aims of the study
    • Our research question
    • Your five hypotheses with justification.
  • METHODOLOGY
    • You will explain, using visual aids (pictures or drawings) how to conducted each experiment
    •  Including a brief justification ( why you think this method is appropriate )
    • Include a list of all the material needed, with pictures.

TSC – B & C 

Due date:

  • 10A: November 14
  • 10C: November 15

InS 10: Coastal Processes and Landforms Poster – First summative

You will have today’s class and a double period during seminar week to complete this task. You should submit it at the end of the priod next week. You may want to do some homework before then.

Due dates:

  • 10A: Wednesday Oct 18th, periods 3 and 4
  • 10C: Friday Oct 20th, periods 1 and 2

Using this reading,  (source) create a poster or booklet explaining, with the aid of diagrams, the formation of:

  • Cliffs
  • Wave Cut Platforms
  • Caves
  • Arches
  • Stacks
  • Stumps
  • Bays
  • Headlands.

Your resource should also include how erosion and/or deposition processes produced the landform. To do so, explain the 4 processes of erosion and produce fully annotated diagrams. The four processes are:

  • Attrition
  • Corrasion
  • Corrosion
  • Hydraulic action

Examples of each landform with at least one photograph and/or map of it’s location from anywhere in the world

  • Links to the sources of information of your images/maps/photographs should be cited
  • You may use your own photographs

 

TSC, Criterion A

InS 10: Intro to cosatals processes and landforms

Our next unit will be about coastal processes and erosional landforms, leading to another field trip to Kamakura, but this time we will be collecting primary data about the Inamuragasaki Beach on November 3rd

First, a few guiding questions to get us started.

WAVES

What are waves?

Why do they come in different shapes and sizes?

What generates waves?

Why are waves different?

The prefect wave?

BEACHES

What different types of beaches are there?

Can you explain why they look different?

ACTIVITY

In groups of 3 or 4, you will explain one of the following features:

  • Constructive wave
  • Destructive wave
  • Ocean swells
  • Rip currents
  • Billabong
  • Erosion
  • Corrasion
  • Hydraulic action
  • Corrosion
  • Longshore Drift

There’s a catch! Only one person in the group will be allowed to talk. The others will have to “act-out” your explanation without speaking.

Useful link,  or try using this reading,

We will present in 10 minutes the end of class.

Part 2: Marine Processes presentation

Take detailed notes of the slide show

 

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