Month: August 2018

InS10: Market Failure Article Analysis presentation

We have been discussing market failure and externalities. The importance of understanding these things is so that stakeholders (businesses, governments, city planners etc) can allocate resources in order to produce the right amount of any given product or service.

First, here are a few important vocabulary terms: 

  • Externalities (When a 3rd party is directly affected by the good or service that they are not consuming or producing themselves, such as second hand smoke).
  • Merit Goods (good goods, that affect the person NOT consuming/producing the good such as medicines) These are often Public Goods.
  • Demerit Goods (bad goods such as pollution and cigarettes)

Another way to put it is that we want to maximize our utility (happiness) or “Equilibrium” level. It means that the perfect amount of the good or service is produced and consumed.

  • So for example, you eat a bite of ice cream, that first bite would taste the best. But then you eat another and another until you get to the point at which you are completely satisfied (the 9th bite). If you were to eat one more bite it (10) it would make you feel a bit sick. You would not consume another bite if it was to have a negative effect on you (therefore, make you feel ill) so your utility would be maximized at the 9th bite.
  • Inversely, if we do not produce or consume enough of something (say a vaccine for malaria) then we are not at equilibrium or the socially optimal level as there are still people who would  like the good or service but cannot get it. So we need the someone else to intervene and help, this is where the government comes in. They help subsidize the production of the merit good.

Your first assessment with be analyzing economic activities in order to identify the market failure, externalities and solutions to reach equilibrium:

You will need to take an article from the news ( maybe use one of these ) and using the topic of market failure, explain what the problem is (why the market has failed) and how the government could step in to solve the problem through the use of a subsidy or a tax.

Layout:

1) Summarise what the main point of the article is – point out any controversy
2) Explain why the market is failing to be efficient (at equilibrium)
3) Identify the private and social (third party) costs and or benefits
4) Identify the stakeholders in the market and explain if they are hurt or helped and why
5) Explain 2 or 3 possible solutions and evaluate how well they might work given the context of the situation. Evaluate which one is best suited to address the imbalance.
Remember:
You may use a digram to explain your reasoning.

Judgments are made that are supported by effective and balanced reasoning.

  • Make judgments – be specific about what you think.

  • Support judgments with appropriate reasoning – explain why you came to that conclusion and mention the evidence you have for making assumptions or synthesising points.

Consider alternative points of view (be clear about specific stakeholders) or alternative outcomes to the ones you have discussed. Also support these alternatives or rank in order of priority/effectiveness. Give room for claims and their counterclaims.

Here is an example. 

In groups of 2: Pick a recent article depicting a market failure and analyze it using the 5 points above. You will present your findings to the class.

  • Presentations should be between 3 and 5 minutes long
  • You may record a video

Hyperlink your presentations here.

TSC (A, C, D)

Due date: Thursday September 13th

InS 8: Religion – Creation Myths

What are creation myths?

What creation myths do you know?

What is the purpose of a creation myth?

Step 1: You and a partner/small group will look at one of the Creation Stories. As you read, complete a See Think Wonder routine on a large piece of paper. As you read, consider: 

  • What do you see?

  • What do you think about that?

  • What does it make you wonder?

Possible topics:

  • Australian Aborigines
  • North American Aborigines
  • Hokkaido Aborigines
  • Chinese Creation
  • Christian Creation
  • Hindu Creation
  • Humanist Creation
  • Jewish Creation
  • Muslim Creation
  • Yanomamo Sanem
  • Baha’i Creation
  • Another creation of your choice. Must be approved by Mr. McKeown
  • Possible source

You will share your finding with your peers. Outlining similarities and differences of your myths 

Step 2: Draw a 6 panel comic strip depicting the big lines of a religious story of your choice, approved by Mr. McKeown

  • Your comic strip must include drawings, but writing is optional
  • You must tell the whole story, beginning, middle and end, though some details can/should be omitted
  • You will have a double period to finish your comic strip

Step 3: Put yourself in a group of 4 people. Make sure no one has the same religion. Share your strip (you may have to have a digital copy if you don’t have the original).

Step 4: Complete the Claim, Support, Question table, thinking about the similarities and differences between the religions. Be prepared to share with the whole class.

InS 9: Bystander-ism

We have discussed the various aspects of our behavior, and tried to explain them through the Nature vs Nurture debate.

What about Kindness?

  1. What factors influence whether a person acts or does not act to help when they see someone in need?
  2. Are there cultures that are more helpful than other cultures? Can you explain why?
  3. What are some of the motivations to help?
  4. Describe a situation in which one of you helped others, and analyse the reason/motivation for why you did it? Are there other reasons why someone might exhibit the same behavior?
  5. Watch the PBS video on children being naturally altruistic and explain
    1. The conclusion of the study
    2. The strengths and limitations of the study

Bystanderism

What would you do if you saw this man laying down in Motomachi? Explain your answer and the reasons that dictate your decision.

Image result for homeless person in distress

What about this woman? Explain how your decision to help might differ?

Image result for woman unconscious

Part 1: Introduction to the bystander effect or the bystander intervention:

  • What you would do in the same situation.
  • What would make you react this way?
  • What factors decide wether people help or not?

If time: Watch the video on the death of Kitty Genovese which led to bystanderism research by Latane and Darley. 

 

Part 2: In groups, you will read the Law et al 259-263 reading handout (do not lose the handout)

What are the factors that influence whether someone helps or not?  The decision is not as simple as you might think.

Using examples of research, each table group will explain how the following factors affect wether or not someone will help a person in distress:

  • diffusion of responsibility, social influence (pluralistic ignorance) and audience inhibition
  • Arousal and cost and reward 
  • Similarity, victim attributes and responsibility
  • Mood, competence and experience

Check your understanding. Each of you will complete this document  and hyperlink it here.

Part 2: Create your own experiment

  • In the same groups, brainstorm 2 experiments you could do to answer a question about human behavior 
  • hyperlink it here.
  1. Create a research question. What will you try to prove/disprove? (be creative)
  2. Create one experiment with informed consent (where the person you are studying know they are doing a study)
  3. Create one experiment without informed consent (where you study people without them knowing they are being observed)
    • Have step by step descriptions of your experiments
    • Explain what kind of observations you would record. (quantitative vs qualitative)
    • What kind of conclusion could you draw from your study? How would you know it is reliable?

InS8: Religion Intro

For our first unit, we’ll be looking at the role World Religions have played in development of culture and human history.

The statement of inquiry will be : 

Religions are belief systems that shape our cultures and perspectives

Inquiry Questions:

What are the major belief systems?

hat do you know about the?

How do they affect the world? ,

What are the similarities and differences between major world religions?

  •  What do you find interesting about this unit?
  • What worries you about this unit?
  • What will you need to know in order to answer the unit question?
  • What is your stance/opinion on the statement of inquiry?
  • What question do you have about the statement of inquiry

Warm up: Make a list of ten things that you believe in a blogpost. Make a list, starting with the sentence: “I believe…” Once completed share one or more of your beliefs with your group, and explain why you believe this.

Hyperlink your answers here and have a discussion with a partner about your beliefs. Are there similarities? Differences? How do you explain the differences?

What is religion? Watch the following BrainPop video and write a definition for religion (in your own words) in your table groups.

Religion as a system. Revise the key concept of systems by reading this. Then, create a diagram (hand drawn or digital) showing how religion can be connected with various parts of human society. You might like to consider the following aspects. How are these things related?

  1. Social aspects (how we act and relate to one another)
  2. Cultural aspects (cultural practices such as dance, food, music, art)
  3. Political aspects (how we govern ourselves and choose our leaders)
  4. Economic aspects (money and resources)
  5. Legal aspects (laws)

Take a picture and hyperlink your diagram here

 

InS 10: Intro to Market Failure

In groups, discuss:

  • What do you know about pricing?
  • How do companies calculate the cost of a good?
  • Why are similar goods sometimes priced differently?
  • Why are goods different prices in different places?

Once again:

  • What is supply and demand?
  • Give a concrete example

Discuss: What is missing in the supply and demand equation?

___________________________________________________________

Market failure is when pricing mechanism leads to an inefficient allocation of (scarce) resources and loss of economic welfare

Today, we will only consider 2 types of market failure: positive and negative externalities

Externalities are the consequence of an industrial or commercial activity which affects other parties without this being reflected in market prices

Discuss: What is not included in the price of:

  • Cigarettes?
  • Cars?
  • Tree planting?
  • Education?

How can we adjust prices, now that we know their externalities?

 

Externalities do not have to be about pricing. Any activity that has an unintended impact on a third party can be seen as an externality.

PPT

Exercise 1: In your table groups

  1. Define and give one example of:
  • Private cost
  • Social cost
  • Social benefit

2. Explain 2 positive and 2 negative externalities  in the school. (Social benefit and social cost)

————————————————–

Exercise 2:  In groups of 2

Read one of the following articles, describe it to the class while explaining:

Exercise 3: As a class, we will play Externalities Mystery!

You will be divided into 8 groups of 2 or 3

  • Each group will briefly explain wether the hospital should be built or not, base don their card’s perspective.
  • We will then have small discussions on wether or not the hospital construction should go ahead.
    • What were the reasons for your decision?
    • Why were those reasons more significant than any other reason?
    • What other factors might it depend on?
    • What else might you want to know before making a final choice?

Then:

  • Which costs are private costs/benefits, and which are external?
  • Can we put a value on any of these externalities?
  • Who is likely to benefit/suffer the most as a result of the hospital project?

If time:

How is Christmas an externality?

Or spot all the externalities in Dr Seuss’ the Lorax

InS 9: Intro to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology and the study of human behaviour.

What is the nature vs. nurture argument?

What is behaviour?

What part of your Behaviour is based on:

  • your gender?
  • your parents?
  • your culture?
  • your friends?

Watch the BBC clip on gender stereotypes:

Discuss:

  • Summarize the findings of the Cambridge study in regards to adults and gender stereotyping, and the Hines study on monkeys and toy preferences.
  • Are there flaws or biases in the research?

Watch the BBC short documentary on Eugenics and sport.

What is one possible explanation for the dominance of black athletes in sprint events? Why is this a dangerous and/or erroneous assumption to make?

Write a blogpost explaining your understanding of the Nature VS Nurture debate. Using examples, give your opinion on the theme. Is our behavior dictated by our genes or our environment?

Hyperlink your blogpost link here

Homework:

Using the Nature vs. Nurture (handout), read the arguments and then fill out the chart on the back, and check with your family tonight on whether or not they agree with you, and please bring your sheet completed to tomorrow’s class, ready to discuss your answers.

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