Author: mckeownb (page 1 of 53)

InS 10: Introduction to Market Failure

In groups, discuss:

  • What do you know about pricing?
  • How do companies calculate the cost of a good?
  • Why are similar goods sometimes priced differently?
  • Why are goods different prices in different places?

Once again:

  • What is supply and demand?
  • Give a concrete example

What is missing in the supply and demand equation?

___________________________________________________________

Market failure is when pricing mechanism leads to an inefficient allocation of (scarce) resources and loss of economic welfare

Today, we will only consider 2 types of market failure: positive and negative externalities

Externalities are the consequence of an industrial or commercial activity which affects other parties without this being reflected in market prices

  • What is not included in the price of:
    • Cigarettes?
    • Cars?
    • Tree planting?
    • Education?

How can we adjust prices, now that we know their externalities?

 

Externalities do not have to be about pricing. Any activity that has an unintended impact on a third party can be seen as an externality.

In your groups, think of at least three positive and three negative externalities in the school. 

————————————————–

Exercise:

Each of you will read one of the following articles and explain:


If time:

How is Christmas an externality?

Or spot all the externalities in Dr Seuss’ the Lorax

InS 10 – Kamakura Beach Study Write-Up

Now that we have collected all of our data, it is time to put it all together.

First, make sure all of your paper data is inputed here

PART 2 – graphing results, analysis, conclusion and evaluation

Please use clear headings for these sections.

ANALYSIS

First you will graph your data in order to analyse your findings

* Note – Graphs can be computer generated or done by hand and must have titles, referred to and be integrated into the text, where you talk about them. You should use a variety of suitable graphs to display data. They must be clear, have labelled/numbered axis and titled. Be as creative as you want when illustrating all of your work.

Write your analysis under the headings of each Hypotheses. You will state what we expected with reference to our studies on coastal processes and landforms.( use what we have learned in class! ) You will analyse ( describe and explain ) the data you collected with regard to the expectations of a destructive beach, and state whether or not you have proved or disproved each hypothesis. DO NOT ANSWER THE RESEARCH QUESTION. You will do this in the conclusion. 

Graphing suggestions:

  1. The beach gradient is steeper towards the back of the beach
  • Create a beach profile by graphing the angle of slope from each quadrat of your transect and analyse this bearing in mind what we know about a destructive profile (use class averages)
  • 3D graphing on Excel
  1. Beach material will be larger and more angular towards the back of the beach
  1. The waves will be high ( 1 metre or more ) and frequent ( more than 12 per minute )
  • Use a table or pictograph to illustrate the data and graph the 2 class averages.
  1. There will be a strong longshore drift
  • Analyse your findings referring to prevailing wind, direction of movement  and time taken for any movement of material over 10m. If it is over 3m per minute then it is considered strong.

         5. There is natural evidence (erosional landforms) and evidence of Mitigation (man-made defences) which illustrate that show            the beach is being destroyed.

  • Using a field sketch and the observational notes you made as well as photographs present any evidence of the above. Use lots of photos and be creative here. Annotate your photographs to show what they illustrate.

CONCLUSION

Sum up what you found. Are your hypotheses mainly proven or disproven?  Go through each hypothesis and state whether it’s proved or disproved, based on the summary of your findings you will conclude and give your answer to the question: “ Is the beach at Kamakura Inmuragasaki a destructive beach?”

EVALUATION

Briefly evaluate (discuss positive and negatives)

  1. the methods and how these might have been improved (not the execution of your peers!)
  2. suggest how the study/methodology might be improved 
  3. how the study might be extended.

TSC for this  A, B, C & D

Hyperlink your work here

Due date: 

10A: Wednesday December 6th

10C: Tuesday December 5th

InS 9: Introduction to Social History

Columbus and the Native Americans.

In table groups, discuss the following questions:

  • What do you know about Christopher Columbus? What is your opinion of him?
  • What do you know about Native Americans, also called Indians
  • How did you learn about those things?
  • How do we know that the History we have learned is true?
  • Do Historians have an opinion about the topics they cover? Can they be biased?

Reading 1: Kennedy et al:

As you read, consider the following questions:

  • What is the purpose of this text? Why was it written?
  • What is the author’s perspective in the text? What is the main message?
  • Highlight words or passage who seem to demonstrate a bias, or that could lead the reader to gain a certain opinion on the subject.

Now that we’ve read about the Indians and Columbus:

  • What would you say about them based on your reading?
  • What themes did the readings focus on?
  • If there is a bias, where does it come from and how is it manifested?
  • What information was not included in the text? Why do you think they historians chose to omit it?
  • How is our perception of History shaped by historians?

Reading 2: Zinn

As you read, consider the following questions:

  • What is the purpose of this text? Why was it written?
  • What is the author’s perspective in the text? What is the main message?
  • Highlight words or passage who seem to demonstrate a bias, or that could lead the reader to gain a certain opinion on the subject.

Now that we’ve read a different perspective, discuss the following questions:

  • Has your perspective of Columbus and Native Americans changed after reading this text?
  • If there is a bias, where does it come from and how is it manifested?
  • What information was not included in the text? Why do you think Zinn chose to omit it?
  • What themes did the readings focus on? How do they differ from the Kennedy, David et al reading?
  • How is our perception of History shaped by historians?
  • Are certain types of sources less biased?

Exercise 1:

In groups of 2, you will write a one paragraph description of Columbus’ “discovery” of the Americas and Native Americans, with a clear bias for or against him.

  • Use words that will emphasize your opinion
  • Include/omit the information that will best serve your purpose
  • Do not make up facts!

Part 2: Watch the simple animated video history,

Columbus on trial

Discussion: 

  • How can you read history and be aware of biases?
  • If you were to write about Columbus, what themes would you focus on, knowing that you cannot write everything about everything?
  • What themes would you not include?
  • How to analyze sources
  • Primary and secondary sources

 

Assessment:

In groups of 2, you will now work on your

social history assessment

Write your team members and the specific members or group you will research here

InS 10: Field Trip Beach Study To Kamakura

On November 3rd, we will be going to Kamakura to conduct a few data collection experiments on Inamuragasaki beach in Kamakura.

On the day, you will either meet us:

What to bring:

  • Wear your YIS PE t-shirt
  • Your lunch
  • Water
  • Sunscreen and sunglasses
  • A camera or smartphone
  • Swimsuit and towel for those going in the water.

————————————————————-

The fieldtrip has two main aims

  1. To familiarise you with the processes and landforms of the coastal environment and mitigation methods
  2. To conduct fieldwork required for a geographical investigation of a coastal zone

Our research question is:

“ Is Inamuragasaki beach a destructive beach?”

To help answer this we are gathering data on beach characteristics, beach material, gradient and waves, as well as making observations to decide whether or not it is destructive or constructive  

We will try to prove or disprove the following Hypotheses

  1. The beach gradient is steeper towards the back of the beach
  2. Beach material will be larger and more angular towards the back of the beach
  3. The waves will be high ( 1 metre or more ) and frequent ( more than 13 per minute)
  4. There will be a strong longshore drift
  5. There is natural evidence (erosional landforms) and man made evidence (defences) that the beach is being destroyed

Methodology

We will be working in class groups to make information sharing easier. There will be 8 transects. See map for transects and groups

Each class will be split into 4 groups and will rotate their tasks. See rotation and explanation. You will have a copy of this with you.

Since we will be going with Ms Wilson’s classes, here is our schedule for the day:

Time Task
Morning: 10:30 to 12:00 Tasks 2 and 3: Waves, Longshore Drift  and Observations
Afternoon: 12:30 – 2:00 Task 1 – Beach Material and Gradient

 

PART 1 – Introduction, location and method

Before we go, you need to have a good understanding of the area we are going to research, and of the methodology of our experiments

In groups of 3, you will need:

  • A title page – include your name
  • Contents page ( this will be done last)
  • Clear headings for each section – INTRODUCTION/LOCATION, METHOD etc
  • INTRODUCTION
    • A one or two paragraph description of the location (history, geographic location and site)
    • A hand drawn map of the beach, and another situating it in Japan
    • The aims of the study
    • Our research question
    • Your five hypotheses with justification.
  • METHODOLOGY
    • You will explain, using visual aids (pictures or drawings) how to conducted each experiment
    •  Including a brief justification ( why you think this method is appropriate )
    • Include a list of all the material needed, with pictures.

TSC – B & C 

Due date:

  • 10A: November 14
  • 10C: November 15

InS 10: Coastal Processes and Landforms Poster – First summative

You will have today’s class and a double period during seminar week to complete this task. You should submit it at the end of the priod next week. You may want to do some homework before then.

Due dates:

  • 10A: Wednesday Oct 18th, periods 3 and 4
  • 10C: Friday Oct 20th, periods 1 and 2

Using this reading,  (source) create a poster or booklet explaining, with the aid of diagrams, the formation of:

  • Cliffs
  • Wave Cut Platforms
  • Caves
  • Arches
  • Stacks
  • Stumps
  • Bays
  • Headlands.

Your resource should also include how erosion and/or deposition processes produced the landform. To do so, explain the 4 processes of erosion and produce fully annotated diagrams. The four processes are:

  • Attrition
  • Corrasion
  • Corrosion
  • Hydraulic action

Examples of each landform with at least one photograph and/or map of it’s location from anywhere in the world

  • Links to the sources of information of your images/maps/photographs should be cited
  • You may use your own photographs

 

TSC, Criterion A

InS 10: Intro to cosatals processes and landforms

Our next unit will be about coastal processes and erosional landforms, leading to another field trip to Kamakura, but this time we will be collecting primary data about the Inamuragasaki Beach on November 3rd

First, a few guiding questions to get us started.

WAVES

What are waves?

Why do they come in different shapes and sizes?

What generates waves?

Why are waves different?

The prefect wave?

BEACHES

What different types of beaches are there?

Can you explain why they look different?

ACTIVITY

In groups of 3 or 4, you will explain one of the following features:

  • Constructive wave
  • Destructive wave
  • Ocean swells
  • Rip currents
  • Billabong
  • Erosion
  • Corrasion
  • Hydraulic action
  • Corrosion
  • Longshore Drift

There’s a catch! Only one person in the group will be allowed to talk. The others will have to “act-out” your explanation without speaking.

Useful link,  or try using this reading,

We will present in 10 minutes the end of class.

Part 2: Marine Processes presentation

Take detailed notes of the slide show

 

InS 9: Psychological Experiment on Memory

The psychology experiment has 2 main objectives:

  1. To familiarise you with psychological research and methods
  2. To conduct an experiment required for psychological study where one independent variable is manipulated (TBD) and one dependent variable is measured (number of words remembered)

After conducting your experiment as a class you will collate all the data and then do your write up of the experiment individually along the following guidelines.

The Assignment:

Part 1: Groups of 4

Title Page includes the name of the experiment: The Effect of Word Order on Memory: The Serial Position Effect centered and then in the lower left hand corner your names, your class and the date of ubmission on three separate lines

Introduction includes :

  • the subject you are investigating
  • details of the studies being replicated and its findings
  • why you are doing the experiment
  • what the aim is
  • what your hypotheses are (i.e.) our first hypothesis is that memory of the middle section of words will be greater if a larger font is used.

Method is given to you but briefly state the design of the experiment:

  • who the participants are (we will all be using an opportunity or convenience sampling based on time constraints instead of random sampling)
  • the materials needed to conduct the experiment
  • an informed consent form
  • the step by step procedure to conduct the experiment referring to instructions in the appendix
  • Include a short justification for each part of your method.
  • Hyperlink your work here

TSC A + B

Due date:

  • 9A:  – October 5th Experiment on Monday October 9th
  • 9C:  – October 5th Experiment on Monday October 9th

First, we need:

  • Script
  • Procedure, class set-up, answer sheet
  • Powerpoint with words and variable
  • Informed consent form
  • Hyperlink here

———–Part 2: Individual work———–

Data collection sheets: 9A9C

  1. Title Page includes the name of the experiment The Effect of Word Order on Memory: The Serial Position Effect centered and then in the lower left hand corner your name, your class and the date of submission on three separate lines
  2.  Abstract is written after the experiment and states what you are studying, the aim or purpose of the experiment you are conducting, a brief description of the method, some details about the participants, where the research was conducted, and briefly state your results. (1 paragraph)
  3.  Results : Graphs of your results with clear labels and titles, your results must also be clearly stated in written form in this section, including anomalies (2 graphs and a totla of 4 sentences)
  4.  Discussion: relates your results to the results of the study you are replicating, you state what your results mean in relation to your hypotheses, you state your conclusion, and how you would improve this study if you were to do it again (2 paragraphs)
  5. Appendix: Include a summary table of raw data in the appendix that you can refer to, as well as all of your calculations (Images of your data tables, with titles and numbers, and all calculations)
  6. Hyperlink your work here

 

TSC – C & D

Due:

9A: Wednesday November 8th

9C: Wednesday November 8th

InS 9 Psych: Introduction to Memory

Introduction to Memory and Research Methods for Psychology.  

What is memory? How do we remember things? Why do we forget things?

1: Let’s play a game: 

Understanding short term memory through a letter recall activity

  • Compare your correct answer % with your group. Are the patterns the same?
  • What factors affected your memory recall?
  • What technique did you use to remember the letters?
  • How could you remember these letter if you had more time?
  • What variations could have helped/hindered your memory?
  • Did you put wrong answers? What does that say about your actual memories?
  • Have you had memories that turned out to be false?

Here are a few other ones if you want to try some more on your own.

2: Looking at Elizabeth Loftus’ Ted Talk

  • What does she say about false memory?
  • Eyewitness testimony?  
  • Misleading questions?
  • How can we control what people “remember”?
  • What ethical issues are raised by the false memory debate?

How does Memory work?

 

Homework: Read How Does Memory Work

  • Give the definition, in your own words,  of 5 words vocabulary terms you did not know in the reading
  • IN groups of 2 or 3, create a poster visually representing the way our brain registers memories
  • Use annotations
  • Be creative
  • Due next class

InS 9: Manipulating Behavior in the Media

We have been discussing how companies use conditioning to manipulate our behaviour, in order to make us (the consumer) buy their product. 

What techniques have we discussed that advertizers use to manipulate our behaviour?

Today, you will analyze how the media does this:

You will use the following sources to compete the task:

For Psychological studies, use

Here is your task:

  • Pick a commercial you think uses a few psychological techniques. It can be any type: video, poster, billboard, etc.
  • Identify and analyse 3 to 5 techniques the marketeers are using in their commercial advert(s). With reference to one or more commercials you will identify some of the the techniques used to make us buy.
  • For each technique, you will evaluate its effectiveness. You must use sources to support your argument, not your personal opinion. Find a study that has proven this theory.
    • The study might not be directly related to your topic or use the same terminology as the sources above. You need to refine your searches to find the proper study
    • Name each study by the lead researcher(s) last name(s) and mention the university where it was conducted at leats once.
  • Groups of 2
  • Present your findings in any way you fell will best convey your information: written google doc with hyperlinks, a voice over video (4 minutes max), poster,  presentation (4 minutes max), interpretive dance, etc
  • Please link your work here

Your work must include:

  • The clip or clips from a commercial ( any language )
  • Identify the target audience and demographic – who is the commercial aimed at
  • Annotations or notes clearly explaining the technique (tricks) used in the commercials
  • An explanation of the reasons for using each technique
  • Your evaluation as to why you think it is effective or not, what makes it a good advert
  • MLA citations
  • If you present on slides, no more than 10 words per slide

Due beginning of lesson –

  • 9A: Thursday September 21
  • 9C: Friday September 22

TSC Criteria

InS 9 Psychology: Classical Conditioning, Positive and Negative Reinforcement

Last class, we discussed how psychology is the study of human behavior, and how our environment, as well as our genetic makeup affect the ways we act. We also discussed reasons people are altruistic. Finally, we discussed ways researchers can measure the reason for altruism. 

Today, we will discuss way to alter people’s behavior.

Part 1: Conditioning

Have you heard of Pavlov’s dogs? Discuss

  • How do we learn?
  • What has created your personality?
  • How do you know that you have free will?

Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov

classical-conditioning

 

Ok that was a lot of information. Here’s a simpler version:

Here is an example of altering behavior on humans: Little Albert, one of the earliest studies of human behavior modification.

What conclusions can you make from the Little Albert experiment?

Are there any flaws in the experiment?

In your table groups, can you list the:

  • UCS
  • UCR
  • CS
  • CR

Part 2: Positive vs. Negative reinforcement

For each one think of a specific example that affect your own behavior.

In your groups, research and come up with the definitions, in your own words, of positive and negative reinforcement.

Read and complete the advertising question in the handout in groups of 2 or 3 

You will embed the videos here (9A, 9C)  and present your findings to the class

 

 

 

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