Category: Individuals and Societies 9 (page 1 of 14)

InS9: Social History Essay

Most history is written from the viewpoint of the victors not the vanquished and it usually focuses on major political and economic events.  However in this unit we want to focus on society and the common man or woman, a story that is inclusive and representative and that tells the story of one person or a group of people.  Most important is to focus on a unique group of people that have one thing in common and that you have no relation to:

  • US soldiers suffering from PTSD that served in Afghanistan
  • Trawling fishermen in the Atlantic Ocean
  • Rohingya refugees in Thailand
  • Carvers of wooden Buddhas from Japan
  • Rockabilly bands in Yoyogi Park
  • Any group of people you are interested in

You will find some stories that have been written about in newspapers, magazines, on personal blogs, but where can you go looking for more personal and primary sources?  Is there someone you could conduct an interview with or is there one that has already been conducted with someone in that group? Do some of these people keep an online journal or blog? For example you could start with the wanting to know more about child refugees, then narrow it down to a subgroup such as Syrian child refugees.  But through your research you discover that is too broad so you focus on one specific area In Turkey with many young Syrian refugees.

Now you need to come up with the three themes that you are going to talk about. They might be the lack of education, inadequate food, and the desire to go elsewhere. You will need at least 4 legitimate sources and one must be an interview that has been conducted with a member of the group, or an expert in the field.

It would be great if as source could be an interview you conduct.  You could contact an expert in the field and conduct an interview with them by e-mail.

Remember that social history delves into personal lives so we must be conscious as researchers that we are handling very sensitive information and looking at it through their lens of history.

Assessment: In-class essay

You will write a social history essay on one specific person or one group of people, looking for their voice and point of view to come through in your writing along with their story.  

Part 1: 1 page, typed outline

  • Your research question will be your title
  • An introduction with a clear thesis statement that covers the 3 themes that you are going to focus on
  • 3 body paragraphs with topic sentences, main argument, supporting arguments, facts and stats
  • A conclusion where you synthesize your answer
  • Your bibliography should have at least four valid sources including one interview, using MLA Works Cited  citation
  • At least 2 of the source should have a short OPPVL (1 or 2 sentences per point)

Show initiative and explore as many different avenues as possible in looking for information.  You are trying to give an honest portrayal of this group of people to a larger audience. Think about what you want them to know about this group when they finish reading your piece. This message should be evident in your outline. 

Part 2: In-class essay

  • You will only be allowed to bring your outline, water and writing material
  • You will have 60 minutes to write a 5 paragraph essay
  • With proper in-text citations
  • Your narrative should be between 500-600 words.  

 

Creating a good research question:

Research Rundowns

InS 9: Introduction to Social History

Columbus and the Native Americans.

In table groups, discuss the following questions:

  • What do you know about Christopher Columbus? What is your opinion of him?
  • What do you know about Native Americans, also called Indians
  • How did you learn about those things?
  • How do we know that the History we have learned is true?
  • Do Historians have an opinion about the topics they cover? Can they be biased?

Part 1:

Reading 1: Kennedy et al:

As you read, consider the following questions:

  • What is the purpose of this text? Why was it written?
  • What is the author’s perspective in the text? What is the main message?
  • Highlight words or passage who seem to demonstrate a bias, or that could lead the reader to gain a certain opinion on the subject.

Now that we’ve read about the Indians and Columbus.

Use a quote to support all answers

  • What is your opinion about them (the Indians and Columbus)  based on your reading?
  • What themes did the readings focus on?
  • If there is a bias, where does it come from and how is it manifested?
  • What kind of information was not included in the text? Why do you think they historians chose to omit it?

Further discussion:

  • How is our perception of History shaped by historians?
  • Are certain types of sources less biased?
  • Is there value in biased historical texts?

Reading 2: Howard Zinn (You will do this on your own while I am away)

  1. Make a copy of this document and put your name in the title
  2. Share the document with me AND hyperlink it here
  3. You have both periods to read the handout and answer all questions
  4. Due at the end of class

Part 2: Videos

Columbus on trial

What is the role of a historian?

  • If you were to retell a historical event, what would be the important questions you would want to answer?
  • How would you try to report accurate information?
  • What methods could you use do do this?

Here are a few methods used by historians:

  • Develop then test hypotheses (verify/falsify) (scientific method?)
  • Reconstruct the physical events
  • Develop a chronology
  • Reconstruct the ‘links’ between events and between the artefacts
  • Look for specific evidence to find the answer to a specific question
  • Test the consistency between the facts
  • Determine what is the relevant evidence
  • ‘Rethink’ the character’s actions
  • Determine what is ‘plausible’

Historians must consider ideas such as:

  • the degree to which the evidence is explained,
  • the quality of the connections between various facts,
  • the degree to which wild and unjustified claims are limited,
  • engagement with alternative interpretations and replies to those interpretations,
  • simplicity of explanation
  • Engagement of the narrative

This all connects to the methodology of History → how historians do History!

Part 3: Groupwork

In groups of 2, you will write a one paragraph description of Columbus’ “discovery” of the Americas and Native Americans, with a clear bias for or against him.

  • Use words that will emphasize your opinion
  • Include/omit the information that will best serve your purpose
  • Do not make up facts!
  • You will present your paragraph to the class.

Discussion: 

  • How can you read history and be aware of biases?
  • If you were to write about Columbus, what themes would you focus on, knowing that you cannot write everything about everything?
  • What themes would you not include?

Useful sources

Practice OPVL #1  with ATL component

InS9: Psychological Experiment on Memory

Part 2: Individual work

First, let’s tabulate the data in these data collection sheets

  1. Title Page includes the name of the experiment The Effect of Word Order on Memory: The Serial Position Effect centered and then in the lower left hand corner your name, your class and the date of submission on three separate lines
  2.  Abstract is written after the experiment and states what you are studying, the aim or purpose of the experiment you are conducting, a brief description of the method, some details about the participants, where the research was conducted, and briefly state your results. (1 paragraph)
  3.  Results : Graphs of your results with clear labels and titles, your results must also be clearly stated in written form in this section, including anomalies (2 graphs and a totla of 4 sentences)
  4.  Discussion: relates your results to the results of the study you are replicating, you state what your results mean in relation to your hypotheses, you state your conclusion, and how you would improve this study if you were to do it again (2 paragraphs)
  5. Appendix: Include a summary table of raw data in the appendix that you can refer to, as well as all of your calculations (Images of your data tables, with titles and numbers, and all calculations)
  6. Hyperlink your work here

TSC– C & D

Due: TBD

InS 9: Experiment on Memory

The psychology experiment has 2 main objectives:

  1. To familiarise you with psychological research and methods
  2. To conduct an experiment required for psychological study where one independent variable is manipulated (TBD) and one dependent variable is measured (number of words remembered)

After conducting your experiment as a class you will collate all the data and then do your write up of the experiment individually along the following guidelines.

Part 1: Groups of 4

Title Page includes the name of the experiment: The Effect of Word Order on Memory: The Serial Position Effect centered and then in the lower left hand corner your names, your class and the date of submission on three separate lines

We will also have another experiment based on another variable.

Brainstorm ideas of variables we could look into.

Introduction includes :

  • the subject you are investigating
  • details of the studies being replicated and its findings
  • why you are doing the experiment
  • what the aim is
  • what your hypotheses are (i.e.) our first hypothesis is that memory of the middle section of words will be greater if a larger font is used.

Method is given to you but briefly state the design of the experiment:

  • who the participants are (we will all be using an opportunity or convenience sampling based on time constraints instead of random sampling)
  • the materials needed to conduct the experiment
  • an informed consent form
  • the step by step procedure to conduct the experiment referring to instructions in the appendix
  • Include a short justification for each part of your method.
  • Hyperlink your work here

InS 9: Memory continued

Let’s play a game: 

Understanding short term memory through a letter recall activity

Let’s try another one.

Last one!

  • Compare your correct answer % with your group. Are the patterns the same?
  • What factors affected your memory recall?
  • What technique did you use to remember the letters?
  • How could you remember these letter if you had more time?
  • What variations could have helped/hindered your memory?
  • Did you put wrong answers? What does that say about your actual memories?
  • Have you had memories that turned out to be false?

Put your score in here

Here are a few other ones if you want to try some more on your own. (See also)

InS9: Intro to Memory

Introduction to Memory and Research Methods for Psychology.

What is memory? How do we remember things? Why do we forget things?

Part 1 How does Memory work?

Watch this video:

 

  1. Explain something you learned about how memory functions (works) that you didn’t know about before watching the film.
  2. Are there any ethical considerations about any of the treatments or technology you saw in the film? Does the result of the treatment outweigh the ethical consideration? Why?

Part 2: Read How Does Memory Work

  • Give the definition, in your own words,  of 5 words vocabulary terms you did not know in the reading
  • In groups of 2 or 3, create a poster visually representing the way our brain registers memories
  • Use annotations
  • Be creative
  • Due next class

InS9 – InS 9: Psychology in advertizing

We have been discussing how companies use conditioning to manipulate our behaviour, in order to make us (the consumer) buy their product. 

What techniques have we discussed that advertizers use to manipulate our behaviour?

Today, you will analyze how the media does this:

You will use the following sources to compete the task:

For Psychological studies, use

Here is your task:

  • Pick a commercial you think uses a few psychological techniques. It can be any type: video, poster, billboard, etc.
  • Identify and analyse 3 to 5 techniques the marketeers are using in their commercial advert(s). With reference to one or more commercials you will identify some of the the techniques used to make us buy.
  • For each technique, you will evaluate its effectiveness. You must use sources to support your argument, not your personal opinion. Find a study that has proven this theory.
    • The study might not be directly related to your topic or use the same terminology as the sources above. You need to refine your searches to find the proper study
    • Name each study by the lead researcher(s) last name(s) and mention the university where it was conducted at leats once.
  • Groups of 2
  • Present your findings in any way you fell will best convey your information: written google doc with hyperlinks, a voice over video (4 minutes max), poster,  presentation (4 minutes max), interpretive dance, etc
  • Please link your work here

Your work must include:

  • The clip or clips from a commercial ( any language )
  • Identify the target audience and demographic – who is the commercial aimed at
  • Annotations or notes clearly explaining the technique (tricks) used in the commercials
  • An explanation of the reasons for using each technique
  • Your evaluation as to why you think it is effective or not, what makes it a good advert
  • MLA citations
  • If you present on slides, no more than 10 words per slide

Due beginning of lesson –

  • 9C, Wednesday September 19

TSC Criteria

InS 9: Classical Conditioning

Thus far, we have discussed how psychology is the study of human behavior, and how our environment, as well as our genetic makeup affect the ways we act. We briefly discussed reasons people are altruistic. Finally, we discussed ways researchers can measure the reason for altruism. 

Today, we will discuss way to alter people’s behavior.

Part 1: Conditioning

Have you heard of Pavlov’s dogs? Discuss

  • How do we learn?
  • What has created your personality?
  • How do you know that you have free will?

Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov

classical-conditioning

 

Ok that was a lot of information. Here’s a simpler version:

Here is an example of altering behavior on humans: Little Albert, one of the earliest studies of human behavior modification.

What conclusions can you make from the Little Albert experiment?

Are there any flaws in the experiment?

In your table groups, can you list the:

  • UCS
  • UCR
  • CS
  • CR

Part 2: Now there are different ways a stimulus that can change a behavior:

  • Negative reinforcement occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative consequence. (source)
  • While a  positive reinforcement involves the addition of a reinforcing stimulus following a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future. When a favorable outcome, event, or reward occurs after an action, that particular response or behavior will be strengthened. (source)

In your groups, one real world example of  positive and negative reinforcement in your lives.

Part 3: Then, in groups of 2 or 3, read and complete the advertising question in the handout 

You will embed the videos here (9A) and present your findings to the class

 

 

 

InS 9: Bystander-ism

We have discussed the various aspects of our behavior, and tried to explain them through the Nature vs Nurture debate.

What about Kindness?

  1. What factors influence whether a person acts or does not act to help when they see someone in need?
  2. Are there cultures that are more helpful than other cultures? Can you explain why?
  3. What are some of the motivations to help?
  4. Describe a situation in which one of you helped others, and analyse the reason/motivation for why you did it? Are there other reasons why someone might exhibit the same behavior?
  5. Watch the PBS video on children being naturally altruistic and explain
    1. The conclusion of the study
    2. The strengths and limitations of the study

Bystanderism

What would you do if you saw this man laying down in Motomachi? Explain your answer and the reasons that dictate your decision.

Image result for homeless person in distress

What about this woman? Explain how your decision to help might differ?

Image result for woman unconscious

Part 1: Introduction to the bystander effect or the bystander intervention:

  • What you would do in the same situation.
  • What would make you react this way?
  • What factors decide wether people help or not?

If time: Watch the video on the death of Kitty Genovese which led to bystanderism research by Latane and Darley. 

 

Part 2: In groups, you will read the Law et al 259-263 reading handout (do not lose the handout)

What are the factors that influence whether someone helps or not?  The decision is not as simple as you might think.

Using examples of research, each table group will explain how the following factors affect wether or not someone will help a person in distress:

  • diffusion of responsibility, social influence (pluralistic ignorance) and audience inhibition
  • Arousal and cost and reward 
  • Similarity, victim attributes and responsibility
  • Mood, competence and experience

Check your understanding. Each of you will complete this document  and hyperlink it here.

Part 2: Create your own experiment

  • In the same groups, brainstorm 2 experiments you could do to answer a question about human behavior 
  • hyperlink it here.
  1. Create a research question. What will you try to prove/disprove? (be creative)
  2. Create one experiment with informed consent (where the person you are studying know they are doing a study)
  3. Create one experiment without informed consent (where you study people without them knowing they are being observed)
    • Have step by step descriptions of your experiments
    • Explain what kind of observations you would record. (quantitative vs qualitative)
    • What kind of conclusion could you draw from your study? How would you know it is reliable?

InS 9: Intro to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology and the study of human behaviour.

What is the nature vs. nurture argument?

What is behaviour?

What part of your Behaviour is based on:

  • your gender?
  • your parents?
  • your culture?
  • your friends?

Watch the BBC clip on gender stereotypes:

Discuss:

  • Summarize the findings of the Cambridge study in regards to adults and gender stereotyping, and the Hines study on monkeys and toy preferences.
  • Are there flaws or biases in the research?

Watch the BBC short documentary on Eugenics and sport.

What is one possible explanation for the dominance of black athletes in sprint events? Why is this a dangerous and/or erroneous assumption to make?

Write a blogpost explaining your understanding of the Nature VS Nurture debate. Using examples, give your opinion on the theme. Is our behavior dictated by our genes or our environment?

Hyperlink your blogpost link here

Homework:

Using the Nature vs. Nurture (handout), read the arguments and then fill out the chart on the back, and check with your family tonight on whether or not they agree with you, and please bring your sheet completed to tomorrow’s class, ready to discuss your answers.

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