Category: Individuals and Societies 9 (page 1 of 15)

InS 9: Circular Economy Summative

We have been discussing the different aspects and questions related to the circular economy.

“A framework for an economy that is restorative and regenerative by design” to go from linear to circular, like an ecosystem

Now is time to look at some specific examples:

 

Each of you will explain how the circular economy’s system approach is used in the production of the following goods:

You will then be placed in groups where you will need to explain the approach to your peers. 


 

Assessment:

You will re-think or re-design a product or service for a circular economy

  1. Pick a product or service that is currently sold on the linear economy
    1. You can pick anything, from a fruit to a city
    2. Describe the product and all of the waste and negative externalities that are caused by it’s production system
  2. Describe the re-design of the product or it’s
    1. Give a description of the main changes you would apply to the production of the product or service
    2. Suggest ways that your ideas can be implemented in the production of your product
    3. Clearly explain how it applies the principles to the circular economy
      • Design out waste and pollution
      • Keep products and materials in use
      • Regenerate natural systems (imitate natural ecosystems)
  3. You will present your idea to the class as a pitch.
    1. You need to convince your audience that this is a realistic, worthy idea
    2. You may present as a slide show or a video

Things to consider:

  • Who will use it?  Why will they use it?
  • If you are making a product, how does the design of your product consider a flow of materials?
  • If you are designing a service, how does it fit within a circular economy?
  • Describe the relationship you will require with your customers/users.

 

Hyperlink your work here

InS9: How to Fix Negative Externalities: Thinking outside the box

We have discussed global climate change and its causes and consequences

  • What are the main causes of GCC?
  • What are the main consequences?
  • How can we limit the impacts of GCC?
    • How realistic are those solution?

Our statement of inquiry for this unit is:

Scientific and technical innovation produce sustainability and equity of resources

  • Can you think of innovations that could help solve GCC?
  • Can we do so without hurting the economy?

 

Let’s play a game:

PPT 


Discussion: 

  • How is the circular economy better different from the ideas we discussed at the beginning last of class?
  • Do you know any current examples of the circular economy?
  • Do you think the circular economy system is realistic? Do we have other options?

1. Design out waste and pollution

 

2. Keep products and Materials in Use

3. Regenerate natural systems

 

Discussion:

  1. We can’t sustain this ‘take-make-dispose’ model – what’s the solution?

2. What would have to change to make recycling work better?

  • Why might aluminum cans be easier to recycle than other products?
  • Are most of the products you use this simple, or are they more complex?
  • What about packaging?

3. What would have to change to allow for using less to be ok?

 

  • Why might it be hard for a politician to campaign for us to ‘use less’?
  • Is there a way of keeping money flowing around the system whilst not depleting more resources?

4. Could longer lasting products work? How?

  • What would be the effect on businesses, employees and the government if products were designed to last longer?

5. What would we have to change to make efficiency really helpful?

 

  • Why might the overall negative effect on the environment increase, even if the process of production becomes more efficient, and prices drop?
  • What is the difference between an efficient system and an effective system? Which is most sensible to aim for?

6. Although many green products are moving in the right direction, what does the destination look like?

 

  • What is the purpose of ‘green’ products?
  • Do ‘green’ products always help us meet that purpose?
  • Is it easy to make the ‘right’ choices as a consumer?
  • Does the ‘green’ label help us choose, or do we need to become experts in every product to understand their environmental and social impact?
  • Is it really fair that unless you can afford to pay a premium you have to choose unhealthy food, damaging products and polluted skies?
  • What if we changed the system instead, so that all products had a positive impact?
  • Are ‘green’ products always good for the planet? Or are they often ‘less bad’?
  • Are companies acting hypocritically when they produce a ‘green’ range alongside their regular products?

7. How can we change things to make our newest members of the human race welcome on our planet?

 

  • What really impacts population change?
  • What links all of the ‘eco-friendly’ concepts explored in this lesson? They tend to only consider the short-term, they can have negative economic impacts and they all rely on isolated actions, rather than considering the whole system.

8. What are the rules for benign production?

 

  • Can we create an economic system that is as adapted to the environment as this?

InS 9: Externalities of Energy production: Global Climate Changs

The next unit will be about energy production, consumption and conservation.

Part 1:

  • First, what is climate change?
  • What are green house gases? Where do they come from?
  • What is the difference between climate change and the greenhouse effect?
  • What are the consequences of climate change on people and nature?
  • What strategies are used to reduce climate change and its impacts?


In groups, you will answer one of the following questions and present your answers to the class. Use visuals as much as possible.

  1. Create a labeled diagram (poster) explaining the functioning of the greenhouse effect, including the amount of incoming solar radiation absorbed and reflected in/by the atmosphere, clouds, the earth, ice and the ocean
  2.  Explain the main lines of the debate over the existence of climate change? Show both sides of the issue, and evaluate their validity.
  3. List the main (most abundant) greenhouse gases, where they come from and list their different level of “global warming potential”
  4. What major human activities are the main causes of greenhouse gas increase? Explain each activity and the way it releases GHG
  5.  Which nations are the biggest GHG producers? Give a list of each nations and their main source of GHG production.
  6. What does the WWF say about how you could become more energy efficient? Research a few other new technologies that can reduce domestic carbon footprint.
  7. List the possible consequences of global temperature change in terms of:
    1. Agriculture
    2. Water resources
    3. Forestry and ecosystems
    4. Human Health
    5. Extreme weather events.

Include you slides on this presentation: 9C

Post presentation discussions:

  • Is there a controversy over wether GCC is man-made? What is debatable?
  • Thinking back to the resource game, if each time you created a shape, a negative externality would occur to yourself or another country, what would be the long term consequence? What would be a solution?
  • Who is responsible for limiting GCC?
  • What are some solutions to GCC? How realistic are they?
    • Will it be necessary to think “outside the box”?
  • What will it take to stop/limit/control GCC?

 

 

InS 9: Scarcity

Today we will begin discussions on our new unit on Resources and Scarcity. Our statement on inquiry will be:

Scientific and technical innovation produce sustainability and equity of resources

What does the statement mean to you?
What issues are implied in the statement?
How do you think we will study these issues?

Part 1: We will play the resource game to explore how resources are exchanged and used between countries

Part 2: Questions:

What problems did you encounter in round 1?

  • Essentially scarcity vs. wants
  • Most resources in the world are scarce and there is an finite supply (e.g. oil, clean water and steel).
  • However humans wants are infinite. Even once we’ve got basic needs (food, shelter, clothing) we always want more.
  • The purpose of an economic activity is the production of good and services, with scarce resources, to best satisfy human needs and maximise people’s happiness (economic welfare).
  • It is assumed consumption increases economic welfare, although of course it also depletes natural resources which has it own problems.

What problems did you try to resolve before the 2nd round ? What did you do differently?

  • Who produces what: Who was best at making a specific thing?
  • What to produce: Should the US make more CDs than cars?
  • How to produce: How do we make the best use of our scarce resources?
  • For whom to produce: Whose needs are greatest (who will pay more) and how best distribute the goods and services to them?

But we are not in a prefect world and choices and trade-offs will have to be made. (what do we make, how and for who?) In Economics this is called opportunity cost; the cost of making that trade-off.

What did you need to do well in the game?

In economics, all resources are classified in 4 categories: (These would be different in Geography)

  • Land (including all natural resources)
  • Labour (size and education/expertise level)
  • Capital (human made resources: money, machines, robots, computers, etc)
  • Entrepreneurship (people who organize the factors of production, taking risks in the search for profit)

How did you organize yourselves in round 2?

  • Did one person take charge?
  • Was it a proper democracy?
  • Did anyone not like what they’d been given to do?

These are economic systems:

  • Command economy
  • Mixed Economy
  • Free Market Economy

Exercise:

In groups of 2, find one example in the news where economic exchanges, resource allocation, resource scarcity or trade has impacted the lives of people. Present your findings to the class, drawing parallels to the game.

  • Explain the economic interaction
  • Explain how it affected different stakeholders
  • Explain the game equivalent of the interaction
  • **When possible, try to use the vocabulary defined above.

 

Social cost of economic interactions

InS9: Social History Essay

Most history is written from the viewpoint of the victors not the vanquished and it usually focuses on major political and economic events.  However in this unit we want to focus on society and the common man or woman, a story that is inclusive and representative and that tells the story of one person or a group of people.  Most important is to focus on a unique group of people that have one thing in common and that you have no relation to:

  • US soldiers suffering from PTSD that served in Afghanistan
  • Trawling fishermen in the Atlantic Ocean
  • Rohingya refugees in Thailand
  • Carvers of wooden Buddhas from Japan
  • Rockabilly bands in Yoyogi Park
  • Any group of people you are interested in

You will find some stories that have been written about in newspapers, magazines, on personal blogs, but where can you go looking for more personal and primary sources?  Is there someone you could conduct an interview with or is there one that has already been conducted with someone in that group? Do some of these people keep an online journal or blog? For example you could start with the wanting to know more about child refugees, then narrow it down to a subgroup such as Syrian child refugees.  But through your research you discover that is too broad so you focus on one specific area In Turkey with many young Syrian refugees.

Now you need to come up with the three themes that you are going to talk about. They might be the lack of education, inadequate food, and the desire to go elsewhere. You will need at least 4 legitimate sources and one must be an interview that has been conducted with a member of the group, or an expert in the field.

It would be great if as source could be an interview you conduct.  You could contact an expert in the field and conduct an interview with them by e-mail.

Remember that social history delves into personal lives so we must be conscious as researchers that we are handling very sensitive information and looking at it through their lens of history.

Assessment: In-class essay

You will write a social history essay on one specific person or one group of people, looking for their voice and point of view to come through in your writing along with their story.  

Part 1: 1 page, typed outline

  • Your research question will be your title
  • An introduction with a clear thesis statement that covers the 3 themes that you are going to focus on
  • 3 body paragraphs with topic sentences, main argument, supporting arguments, facts and stats
  • A conclusion where you synthesize your answer
  • Your bibliography should have at least four valid sources including one interview, using MLA Works Cited  citation
  • At least 2 of the source should have a short OPPVL (1 or 2 sentences per point)

Show initiative and explore as many different avenues as possible in looking for information.  You are trying to give an honest portrayal of this group of people to a larger audience. Think about what you want them to know about this group when they finish reading your piece. This message should be evident in your outline. 

Part 2: In-class essay

  • You will only be allowed to bring your outline, water and writing material
  • You will have 60 minutes to write a 5 paragraph essay
  • With proper in-text citations
  • Your narrative should be between 500-600 words.  

 

Creating a good research question:

Research Rundowns

InS 9: Introduction to Social History

Columbus and the Native Americans.

In table groups, discuss the following questions:

  • What do you know about Christopher Columbus? What is your opinion of him?
  • What do you know about Native Americans, also called Indians
  • How did you learn about those things?
  • How do we know that the History we have learned is true?
  • Do Historians have an opinion about the topics they cover? Can they be biased?

Part 1:

Reading 1: Kennedy et al:

As you read, consider the following questions:

  • What is the purpose of this text? Why was it written?
  • What is the author’s perspective in the text? What is the main message?
  • Highlight words or passage who seem to demonstrate a bias, or that could lead the reader to gain a certain opinion on the subject.

Now that we’ve read about the Indians and Columbus.

Use a quote to support all answers

  • What is your opinion about them (the Indians and Columbus)  based on your reading?
  • What themes did the readings focus on?
  • If there is a bias, where does it come from and how is it manifested?
  • What kind of information was not included in the text? Why do you think they historians chose to omit it?

Further discussion:

  • How is our perception of History shaped by historians?
  • Are certain types of sources less biased?
  • Is there value in biased historical texts?

Reading 2: Howard Zinn (You will do this on your own while I am away)

  1. Make a copy of this document and put your name in the title
  2. Share the document with me AND hyperlink it here
  3. You have both periods to read the handout and answer all questions
  4. Due at the end of class

Part 2: Videos

Columbus on trial

What is the role of a historian?

  • If you were to retell a historical event, what would be the important questions you would want to answer?
  • How would you try to report accurate information?
  • What methods could you use do do this?

Here are a few methods used by historians:

  • Develop then test hypotheses (verify/falsify) (scientific method?)
  • Reconstruct the physical events
  • Develop a chronology
  • Reconstruct the ‘links’ between events and between the artefacts
  • Look for specific evidence to find the answer to a specific question
  • Test the consistency between the facts
  • Determine what is the relevant evidence
  • ‘Rethink’ the character’s actions
  • Determine what is ‘plausible’

Historians must consider ideas such as:

  • the degree to which the evidence is explained,
  • the quality of the connections between various facts,
  • the degree to which wild and unjustified claims are limited,
  • engagement with alternative interpretations and replies to those interpretations,
  • simplicity of explanation
  • Engagement of the narrative

This all connects to the methodology of History → how historians do History!

Part 3: Groupwork

In groups of 2, you will write a one paragraph description of Columbus’ “discovery” of the Americas and Native Americans, with a clear bias for or against him.

  • Use words that will emphasize your opinion
  • Include/omit the information that will best serve your purpose
  • Do not make up facts!
  • You will present your paragraph to the class.

Discussion: 

  • How can you read history and be aware of biases?
  • If you were to write about Columbus, what themes would you focus on, knowing that you cannot write everything about everything?
  • What themes would you not include?

Useful sources

Practice OPVL #1  with ATL component

InS9: Psychological Experiment on Memory

Part 2: Individual work

First, let’s tabulate the data in these data collection sheets

  1. Title Page includes the name of the experiment The Effect of Word Order on Memory: The Serial Position Effect centered and then in the lower left hand corner your name, your class and the date of submission on three separate lines
  2.  Abstract is written after the experiment and states what you are studying, the aim or purpose of the experiment you are conducting, a brief description of the method, some details about the participants, where the research was conducted, and briefly state your results. (1 paragraph)
  3.  Results : Graphs of your results with clear labels and titles, your results must also be clearly stated in written form in this section, including anomalies (2 graphs and a totla of 4 sentences)
  4.  Discussion: relates your results to the results of the study you are replicating, you state what your results mean in relation to your hypotheses, you state your conclusion, and how you would improve this study if you were to do it again (2 paragraphs)
  5. Appendix: Include a summary table of raw data in the appendix that you can refer to, as well as all of your calculations (Images of your data tables, with titles and numbers, and all calculations)
  6. Hyperlink your work here

TSC– C & D

Due: TBD

InS 9: Experiment on Memory

The psychology experiment has 2 main objectives:

  1. To familiarise you with psychological research and methods
  2. To conduct an experiment required for psychological study where one independent variable is manipulated (TBD) and one dependent variable is measured (number of words remembered)

After conducting your experiment as a class you will collate all the data and then do your write up of the experiment individually along the following guidelines.

Part 1: Groups of 4

Title Page includes the name of the experiment: The Effect of Word Order on Memory: The Serial Position Effect centered and then in the lower left hand corner your names, your class and the date of submission on three separate lines

We will also have another experiment based on another variable.

Brainstorm ideas of variables we could look into.

Introduction includes :

  • the subject you are investigating
  • details of the studies being replicated and its findings
  • why you are doing the experiment
  • what the aim is
  • what your hypotheses are (i.e.) our first hypothesis is that memory of the middle section of words will be greater if a larger font is used.

Method is given to you but briefly state the design of the experiment:

  • who the participants are (we will all be using an opportunity or convenience sampling based on time constraints instead of random sampling)
  • the materials needed to conduct the experiment
  • an informed consent form
  • the step by step procedure to conduct the experiment referring to instructions in the appendix
  • Include a short justification for each part of your method.
  • Hyperlink your work here

InS 9: Memory continued

Let’s play a game: 

Understanding short term memory through a letter recall activity

Let’s try another one.

Last one!

  • Compare your correct answer % with your group. Are the patterns the same?
  • What factors affected your memory recall?
  • What technique did you use to remember the letters?
  • How could you remember these letter if you had more time?
  • What variations could have helped/hindered your memory?
  • Did you put wrong answers? What does that say about your actual memories?
  • Have you had memories that turned out to be false?

Put your score in here

Here are a few other ones if you want to try some more on your own. (See also)

InS9: Intro to Memory

Introduction to Memory and Research Methods for Psychology.

What is memory? How do we remember things? Why do we forget things?

Part 1 How does Memory work?

Watch this video:

 

  1. Explain something you learned about how memory functions (works) that you didn’t know about before watching the film.
  2. Are there any ethical considerations about any of the treatments or technology you saw in the film? Does the result of the treatment outweigh the ethical consideration? Why?

Part 2: Read How Does Memory Work

  • Give the definition, in your own words,  of 5 words vocabulary terms you did not know in the reading
  • In groups of 2 or 3, create a poster visually representing the way our brain registers memories
  • Use annotations
  • Be creative
  • Due next class
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