Category: Individuals and Societies 9 (page 1 of 14)

InS9: Psychological Experiment on Memory

Part 2: Individual work

First, let’s tabulate the data in these data collection sheets

  1. Title Page includes the name of the experiment The Effect of Word Order on Memory: The Serial Position Effect centered and then in the lower left hand corner your name, your class and the date of submission on three separate lines
  2.  Abstract is written after the experiment and states what you are studying, the aim or purpose of the experiment you are conducting, a brief description of the method, some details about the participants, where the research was conducted, and briefly state your results. (1 paragraph)
  3.  Results : Graphs of your results with clear labels and titles, your results must also be clearly stated in written form in this section, including anomalies (2 graphs and a totla of 4 sentences)
  4.  Discussion: relates your results to the results of the study you are replicating, you state what your results mean in relation to your hypotheses, you state your conclusion, and how you would improve this study if you were to do it again (2 paragraphs)
  5. Appendix: Include a summary table of raw data in the appendix that you can refer to, as well as all of your calculations (Images of your data tables, with titles and numbers, and all calculations)
  6. Hyperlink your work here

TSC– C & D

Due: TBD

InS 9: Experiment on Memory

The psychology experiment has 2 main objectives:

  1. To familiarise you with psychological research and methods
  2. To conduct an experiment required for psychological study where one independent variable is manipulated (TBD) and one dependent variable is measured (number of words remembered)

After conducting your experiment as a class you will collate all the data and then do your write up of the experiment individually along the following guidelines.

Part 1: Groups of 4

Title Page includes the name of the experiment: The Effect of Word Order on Memory: The Serial Position Effect centered and then in the lower left hand corner your names, your class and the date of submission on three separate lines

We will also have another experiment based on another variable.

Brainstorm ideas of variables we could look into.

Introduction includes :

  • the subject you are investigating
  • details of the studies being replicated and its findings
  • why you are doing the experiment
  • what the aim is
  • what your hypotheses are (i.e.) our first hypothesis is that memory of the middle section of words will be greater if a larger font is used.

Method is given to you but briefly state the design of the experiment:

  • who the participants are (we will all be using an opportunity or convenience sampling based on time constraints instead of random sampling)
  • the materials needed to conduct the experiment
  • an informed consent form
  • the step by step procedure to conduct the experiment referring to instructions in the appendix
  • Include a short justification for each part of your method.
  • Hyperlink your work here

InS 9: Memory continued

Let’s play a game: 

Understanding short term memory through a letter recall activity

Let’s try another one.

Last one!

  • Compare your correct answer % with your group. Are the patterns the same?
  • What factors affected your memory recall?
  • What technique did you use to remember the letters?
  • How could you remember these letter if you had more time?
  • What variations could have helped/hindered your memory?
  • Did you put wrong answers? What does that say about your actual memories?
  • Have you had memories that turned out to be false?

Put your score in here

Here are a few other ones if you want to try some more on your own. (See also)

InS9: Intro to Memory

Introduction to Memory and Research Methods for Psychology.

What is memory? How do we remember things? Why do we forget things?

Part 1 How does Memory work?

Watch this video:

 

  1. Explain something you learned about how memory functions (works) that you didn’t know about before watching the film.
  2. Are there any ethical considerations about any of the treatments or technology you saw in the film? Does the result of the treatment outweigh the ethical consideration? Why?

Part 2: Read How Does Memory Work

  • Give the definition, in your own words,  of 5 words vocabulary terms you did not know in the reading
  • In groups of 2 or 3, create a poster visually representing the way our brain registers memories
  • Use annotations
  • Be creative
  • Due next class

InS9 – InS 9: Psychology in advertizing

We have been discussing how companies use conditioning to manipulate our behaviour, in order to make us (the consumer) buy their product. 

What techniques have we discussed that advertizers use to manipulate our behaviour?

Today, you will analyze how the media does this:

You will use the following sources to compete the task:

For Psychological studies, use

Here is your task:

  • Pick a commercial you think uses a few psychological techniques. It can be any type: video, poster, billboard, etc.
  • Identify and analyse 3 to 5 techniques the marketeers are using in their commercial advert(s). With reference to one or more commercials you will identify some of the the techniques used to make us buy.
  • For each technique, you will evaluate its effectiveness. You must use sources to support your argument, not your personal opinion. Find a study that has proven this theory.
    • The study might not be directly related to your topic or use the same terminology as the sources above. You need to refine your searches to find the proper study
    • Name each study by the lead researcher(s) last name(s) and mention the university where it was conducted at leats once.
  • Groups of 2
  • Present your findings in any way you fell will best convey your information: written google doc with hyperlinks, a voice over video (4 minutes max), poster,  presentation (4 minutes max), interpretive dance, etc
  • Please link your work here

Your work must include:

  • The clip or clips from a commercial ( any language )
  • Identify the target audience and demographic – who is the commercial aimed at
  • Annotations or notes clearly explaining the technique (tricks) used in the commercials
  • An explanation of the reasons for using each technique
  • Your evaluation as to why you think it is effective or not, what makes it a good advert
  • MLA citations
  • If you present on slides, no more than 10 words per slide

Due beginning of lesson –

  • 9C, Wednesday September 19

TSC Criteria

InS 9: Classical Conditioning

Thus far, we have discussed how psychology is the study of human behavior, and how our environment, as well as our genetic makeup affect the ways we act. We briefly discussed reasons people are altruistic. Finally, we discussed ways researchers can measure the reason for altruism. 

Today, we will discuss way to alter people’s behavior.

Part 1: Conditioning

Have you heard of Pavlov’s dogs? Discuss

  • How do we learn?
  • What has created your personality?
  • How do you know that you have free will?

Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov

classical-conditioning

 

Ok that was a lot of information. Here’s a simpler version:

Here is an example of altering behavior on humans: Little Albert, one of the earliest studies of human behavior modification.

What conclusions can you make from the Little Albert experiment?

Are there any flaws in the experiment?

In your table groups, can you list the:

  • UCS
  • UCR
  • CS
  • CR

Part 2: Now there are different ways a stimulus that can change a behavior:

  • Negative reinforcement occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative consequence. (source)
  • While a  positive reinforcement involves the addition of a reinforcing stimulus following a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future. When a favorable outcome, event, or reward occurs after an action, that particular response or behavior will be strengthened. (source)

In your groups, one real world example of  positive and negative reinforcement in your lives.

Part 3: Then, in groups of 2 or 3, read and complete the advertising question in the handout 

You will embed the videos here (9A) and present your findings to the class

 

 

 

InS 9: Bystander-ism

We have discussed the various aspects of our behavior, and tried to explain them through the Nature vs Nurture debate.

What about Kindness?

  1. What factors influence whether a person acts or does not act to help when they see someone in need?
  2. Are there cultures that are more helpful than other cultures? Can you explain why?
  3. What are some of the motivations to help?
  4. Describe a situation in which one of you helped others, and analyse the reason/motivation for why you did it? Are there other reasons why someone might exhibit the same behavior?
  5. Watch the PBS video on children being naturally altruistic and explain
    1. The conclusion of the study
    2. The strengths and limitations of the study

Bystanderism

What would you do if you saw this man laying down in Motomachi? Explain your answer and the reasons that dictate your decision.

Image result for homeless person in distress

What about this woman? Explain how your decision to help might differ?

Image result for woman unconscious

Part 1: Introduction to the bystander effect or the bystander intervention:

  • What you would do in the same situation.
  • What would make you react this way?
  • What factors decide wether people help or not?

If time: Watch the video on the death of Kitty Genovese which led to bystanderism research by Latane and Darley. 

 

Part 2: In groups, you will read the Law et al 259-263 reading handout (do not lose the handout)

What are the factors that influence whether someone helps or not?  The decision is not as simple as you might think.

Using examples of research, each table group will explain how the following factors affect wether or not someone will help a person in distress:

  • diffusion of responsibility, social influence (pluralistic ignorance) and audience inhibition
  • Arousal and cost and reward 
  • Similarity, victim attributes and responsibility
  • Mood, competence and experience

Check your understanding. Each of you will complete this document  and hyperlink it here.

Part 2: Create your own experiment

  • In the same groups, brainstorm 2 experiments you could do to answer a question about human behavior 
  • hyperlink it here.
  1. Create a research question. What will you try to prove/disprove? (be creative)
  2. Create one experiment with informed consent (where the person you are studying know they are doing a study)
  3. Create one experiment without informed consent (where you study people without them knowing they are being observed)
    • Have step by step descriptions of your experiments
    • Explain what kind of observations you would record. (quantitative vs qualitative)
    • What kind of conclusion could you draw from your study? How would you know it is reliable?

InS 9: Intro to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology and the study of human behaviour.

What is the nature vs. nurture argument?

What is behaviour?

What part of your Behaviour is based on:

  • your gender?
  • your parents?
  • your culture?
  • your friends?

Watch the BBC clip on gender stereotypes:

Discuss:

  • Summarize the findings of the Cambridge study in regards to adults and gender stereotyping, and the Hines study on monkeys and toy preferences.
  • Are there flaws or biases in the research?

Watch the BBC short documentary on Eugenics and sport.

What is one possible explanation for the dominance of black athletes in sprint events? Why is this a dangerous and/or erroneous assumption to make?

Write a blogpost explaining your understanding of the Nature VS Nurture debate. Using examples, give your opinion on the theme. Is our behavior dictated by our genes or our environment?

Hyperlink your blogpost link here

Homework:

Using the Nature vs. Nurture (handout), read the arguments and then fill out the chart on the back, and check with your family tonight on whether or not they agree with you, and please bring your sheet completed to tomorrow’s class, ready to discuss your answers.

InS 9: Micro financing and Government Proposal Project

 

What is micro financing?

How effective you think it is to reduce disparity?

What are some possible drawbacks?

Let’s have a look at the cycle of poverty.  Using the handout, try to explain the links between each box and the cycle that occurs.

Here is our next summative assessment: Government Report focusing on Strategies to Encourage Development

  • Groups of 2
  • Your role is that of a development advisor (not economic)
  • Your audience will be the federal or regional government of your Kiva recipient
  • Your task is to decide which development strategy or strategies are most appropriate to  improve the standard of living of a your Kiva recipient’s community
  • Your situation will be that of an individual or group profile from the Kiva website – Anyone you feel you would like to help. You can browse Kiva by country, gender, economic sector, etc.
  • Links to some useful resources
  • Here are some previous student’s factsheet on strategies in reducing disparity.

Your product will be:

  1. Preliminary Research:

Once you find your person or group, take a screenshot of their profile and save their page, and do some further research on the country or region they come from:

  • find information about their level of development and standard of living ( HDI- Fertility rate, GNP, disease etc )
  • Issues in their area or country ( government stability, economy, debt, war etc ) which might affect their level of development.
  • Main economic activities and growth rate
  • Climate, resources and physical nature of the country
  • Any other information that will help you with your decision
  1. Product
  • You will create a 1 page document and 3 minute presentation recommending strategies that will help improve the standard of living and break the cycle of poverty of the community represented by an individual
  • You need to suggest the strategies we have discussed in class: AID, FDI, Fair Trade, Debt Relief, Market and Trade Access, Government policy, Remittances, as well as micro-financing through Kiva. If you find any other strategy make sure to ask your teacher first.
  • You also need to clearly explain how your ideas will break the cycle of poverty of your recipient’s community
  • All of your decisions must be supported with statistical and anecdotal evidence.

TSC B + C + D 

Enter groups and hyperlink your work here

Due date: Wednesday May 30th

InS9: Ways of reducing disparity

You will become familiar with the following:

  • Aid
  • Foreign Direct Investment
  • Fair Trade
  • Debt Relief
  • Market Access and Trade (Free Trade)
  • Government (and policy)
  • Remittances
  • Micro financing

Presentation

Period 2: Government and policy

In groups of 2, find a recent news article about a change in government policy aimed at reducing disparity in terms of:

  • Gender equality
  • Market access
  • Ethnicity
  • Sexual orientation
  • Land ownership
  • Health
  • Human trafficking
  • Education
  • Economic disparity (income)
  • Employment
  • Trade liberalization
  • Free trade zones

Discussion:

  • How have your ideas changed about reducing disparities?
  • What difficulties are there when trying to reduce poverty?
  • What do you think are the misconceptions about poverty and LICs?
  • How can individuals help people in their communities and abroad in gaining a better quality of life?
  • What might be the environmental impacts of LICs becoming more developed? Are there solutions?
  • Is a more equal world possible?
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