# When will you teach my child addition and subtraction?

## You say you do maths, but what about adding and subtraction?

There are five areas of maths we teach in kindergarten: pattern and function, shape and space, data handling and number.

Let’s start with number. We divide number into two parts, number knowledge (understanding that there is a naming system for numbers i.e. 3 represents ***). We also teach number strategy.

We teach number on a daily basis. As teachers we are always looking for ways to make maths part of the curriculum. So we have teaching time in: maths, unit of inquiry, reading, writing and even recess times. There are explicit skill develop times and other times when we provide opportunities for children to show their understanding.

### O.K, but there just little kids, How much thinking do they do about adding and subtraction?

To be a successful mathematician children need to be able to express their thinking using mathematical vocabulary. We listen to their words as they explain what they are thinking and help them develop a vocabulary for thinking. This is called meta-cogntion, or thinking about how you think!

Here is a poster that shows the level of thinking we are developing in kindergarten

Children pass through many stages of development as they explore number strategy, at every stage they need to be able to express their ideas and findings. Children are reflecting on their learning. Any way of recording their understanding is valuable and may include: drawing, diagrams, words or symbols.

### If children think in many different ways, how do I know what these stages are?

The Beginning

I am learning to count a given number of objects. I am learning that a number has a value that does not change (three is always three). I know that there are things called numbers. I am learning to count in sequence order but can’t quite manage this yet (1,3,3,5,9).

One to one Counting

I can count sets of objects up to ten. I can make groups of objects up to ten (1,2,3,4,5,6,7….).

Counting From One on Materials

I can put together two numbers like five sweets and three sweets. I need to use objects such as my fingers to help me. I also need to count each object in the sets to get the answer (1,2,3,4,5,…6,7,8).

Counting From One by Imaging

I put my fingers behind my back or under the table to count (shielding). I can see a problem in my head as pictures or numbers. I count all the numbers from one to get the answer.

I understand the number at the end of my set tells me about the whole set (1,2,3,4,5,6). So if I want to add 6+5 I will put ‘6’ in my mind and count on from there (6… 7,8,9,10,11).

Early thinking about the Parts of a Whole Number

I can work in my head with numbers and take them apart and put them back together in different ways (10+6=16 so 9+6=15). I can work with number facts I know like doubles (7+8=…. 7+7 is 14, so… 7+8 is 15)

### How many ways can you be right?

What’s the missing Number? We have a set of number cards and turn over at least one cards so the children can’t see the number. The children then work out the missing number. Most importantly they have to give the strategy they used.

What are the strategies they used ?

Molly: I looked at five and seven. I looked at the number before and after.

Matthew: I counted from zero.

Taiki: I counted from nine… backwards.

Mai: I looked at all the numbers and I didn’t see six.

SojiroI: I counted forward and backwards and there hasn’t six, so I know it’s six.

Julia: I look at five and six is missing so I know it’s six.

Hashu: I counted down from nine and when I was counting down there wasn’t six… so it might be six.

Jolie: I looked at the number before and after. I didn’t see six.

Here is a video of us carrying out this activity.

I want to know how I can help at home?

We do maths every day so there is no need for you to feel pressure to do things at home. You might find it helpful to look at these activities so you are helping your child think mathematically.

• Talk about how you use addition to calculate what you need to buy e.g. “We have 2 tins of tomatoes and we need three more. How many will we have then?
• Play games, there is so much maths involved (counting on 1,2,3… and counting back 4,3,2,1…) snakes and ladders and Uno are good games.
• Take a set of objects like cubes and see how many ways you can make 5 and work up to 10.
• Get children to grab 2 handfuls of materials and compare them. Which set has more? How do   you know it has more? Can you add them together and count how many you have? Can you take one away from another? What strategy did you use?

## I know my child needs to explain things in their own way to show understanding, but what mathematical words do you us?

### My child is learning English, can we talk about maths in our home language? I am worried they will be behind the other children.

There is so much research to support a strong home language. If you understand an idea (adding) in one language, when it comes time to learn the vocabulary  in another language you can apply your existing knowledge. We would like your help in explaining (in simple words) the ideas and vocabulary listed below to your child in their home language.